Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes

=================================================

(Note: Isabelle/jEdit shows a tree-view of the NEWS file in Sidekick.)

New in Isabelle2016-1 (December 2016)

-------------------------------------

*** General ***

* Splitter in proof methods "simp", "auto" and friends:

- The syntax "split add" has been discontinued, use plain "split",

INCOMPATIBILITY.

- For situations with many conditional or case expressions, there is

an alternative splitting strategy that can be much faster. It is

selected by writing "split!" instead of "split". It applies safe

introduction and elimination rules after each split rule. As a

result the subgoal may be split into several subgoals.

* Command 'bundle' provides a local theory target to define a bundle

from the body of specification commands (such as 'declare',

'declaration', 'notation', 'lemmas', 'lemma'). For example:

bundle foo

begin

declare a [simp]

declare b [intro]

end

* Command 'unbundle' is like 'include', but works within a local theory

context. Unlike "context includes ... begin", the effect of 'unbundle'

on the target context persists, until different declarations are given.

* Simplified outer syntax: uniform category "name" includes long

identifiers. Former "xname" / "nameref" / "name reference" has been

discontinued.

* Embedded content (e.g. the inner syntax of types, terms, props) may be

delimited uniformly via cartouches. This works better than old-fashioned

quotes when sub-languages are nested.

* Mixfix annotations support general block properties, with syntax

"(‹x=a y=b z …›". Notable property names are "indent", "consistent",

"unbreakable", "markup". The existing notation "(DIGITS" is equivalent

to "(‹indent=DIGITS›". The former notation "(00" for unbreakable blocks

is superseded by "(‹unbreabable›" --- rare INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Proof method "blast" is more robust wrt. corner cases of Pure

statements without object-logic judgment.

* Commands 'prf' and 'full_prf' are somewhat more informative (again):

proof terms are reconstructed and cleaned from administrative thm nodes.

* Code generator: config option "code_timing" triggers measurements of

different phases of code generation. See src/HOL/ex/Code_Timing.thy for

examples.

* Code generator: implicits in Scala (stemming from type class

instances) are generated into companion object of corresponding type

class, to resolve some situations where ambiguities may occur.

* Solve direct: option "solve_direct_strict_warnings" gives explicit

warnings for lemma statements with trivial proofs.

*** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***

* More aggressive flushing of machine-generated input, according to

system option editor_generated_input_delay (in addition to existing

editor_input_delay for regular user edits). This may affect overall PIDE

reactivity and CPU usage.

* Syntactic indentation according to Isabelle outer syntax. Action

"indent-lines" (shortcut C+i) indents the current line according to

command keywords and some command substructure. Action

"isabelle.newline" (shortcut ENTER) indents the old and the new line

according to command keywords only; see also option

"jedit_indent_newline".

* Semantic indentation for unstructured proof scripts ('apply' etc.) via

number of subgoals. This requires information of ongoing document

processing and may thus lag behind, when the user is editing too

quickly; see also option "jedit_script_indent" and

"jedit_script_indent_limit".

* Refined folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax: 'next' and 'qed'

are treated as delimiters for fold structure; 'begin' and 'end'

structure of theory specifications is treated as well.

* Command 'proof' provides information about proof outline with cases,

e.g. for proof methods "cases", "induct", "goal_cases".

* Completion templates for commands involving "begin ... end" blocks,

e.g. 'context', 'notepad'.

* Sidekick parser "isabelle-context" shows nesting of context blocks

according to 'begin' and 'end' structure.

* Highlighting of entity def/ref positions wrt. cursor.

* Action "isabelle.select-entity" (shortcut CS+ENTER) selects all

occurrences of the formal entity at the caret position. This facilitates

systematic renaming.

* PIDE document markup works across multiple Isar commands, e.g. the

results established at the end of a proof are properly identified in the

theorem statement.

* Cartouche abbreviations work both for " and ` to accomodate typical

situations where old ASCII notation may be updated.

* Dockable window "Symbols" also provides access to 'abbrevs' from the

outer syntax of the current theory buffer. This provides clickable

syntax templates, including entries with empty abbrevs name (which are

inaccessible via keyboard completion).

* IDE support for the Isabelle/Pure bootstrap process, with the

following independent stages:

src/Pure/ROOT0.ML

src/Pure/ROOT.ML

src/Pure/Pure.thy

src/Pure/ML_Bootstrap.thy

The ML ROOT files act like quasi-theories in the context of theory

ML_Bootstrap: this allows continuous checking of all loaded ML files.

The theory files are presented with a modified header to import Pure

from the running Isabelle instance. Results from changed versions of

each stage are *not* propagated to the next stage, and isolated from the

actual Isabelle/Pure that runs the IDE itself. The sequential

dependencies of the above files are only observed for batch build.

* Isabelle/ML and Standard ML files are presented in Sidekick with the

tree structure of section headings: this special comment format is

described in "implementation" chapter 0, e.g. (*** section ***).

* Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified

within the theory header as 'abbrevs'. The theory syntax for 'keywords'

has been simplified accordingly: optional abbrevs need to go into the

new 'abbrevs' section.

* Global abbreviations via $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and

$ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs are no longer supported. Minor

INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'abbrevs' within theory header instead.

* Action "isabelle.keymap-merge" asks the user to resolve pending

Isabelle keymap changes that are in conflict with the current jEdit

keymap; non-conflicting changes are always applied implicitly. This

action is automatically invoked on Isabelle/jEdit startup and thus

increases chances that users see new keyboard shortcuts when re-using

old keymaps.

* ML and document antiquotations for file-systems paths are more uniform

and diverse:

@{path NAME} -- no file-system check

@{file NAME} -- check for plain file

@{dir NAME} -- check for directory

Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, former uses of @{file} and @{file_unchecked} may

have to be changed.

*** Document preparation ***

* New symbol ○, e.g. for temporal operator.

* New document and ML antiquotation @{locale} for locales, similar to

existing antiquotation @{class}.

* Mixfix annotations support delimiters like \<^control>‹cartouche› --

this allows special forms of document output.

* Raw LaTeX output now works via \<^latex>‹...› instead of raw control

symbol \<^raw:...>. INCOMPATIBILITY, notably for LaTeXsugar.thy and its

derivatives.

* \<^raw:...> symbols are no longer supported.

* Old 'header' command is no longer supported (legacy since

Isabelle2015).

*** Isar ***

* Many specification elements support structured statements with 'if' /

'for' eigen-context, e.g. 'axiomatization', 'abbreviation',

'definition', 'inductive', 'function'.

* Toplevel theorem statements support eigen-context notation with 'if' /

'for' (in postfix), which corresponds to 'assumes' / 'fixes' in the

traditional long statement form (in prefix). Local premises are called

"that" or "assms", respectively. Empty premises are *not* bound in the

context: INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Command 'define' introduces a local (non-polymorphic) definition, with

optional abstraction over local parameters. The syntax resembles

'definition' and 'obtain'. It fits better into the Isar language than

old 'def', which is now a legacy feature.

* Command 'obtain' supports structured statements with 'if' / 'for'

context.

* Command '\<proof>' is an alias for 'sorry', with different

typesetting. E.g. to produce proof holes in examples and documentation.

* The defining position of a literal fact ‹prop› is maintained more

carefully, and made accessible as hyperlink in the Prover IDE.

* Commands 'finally' and 'ultimately' used to expose the result as

literal fact: this accidental behaviour has been discontinued. Rare

INCOMPATIBILITY, use more explicit means to refer to facts in Isar.

* Command 'axiomatization' has become more restrictive to correspond

better to internal axioms as singleton facts with mandatory name. Minor

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Proof methods may refer to the main facts via the dynamic fact

"method_facts". This is particularly useful for Eisbach method

definitions.

* Proof method "use" allows to modify the main facts of a given method

expression, e.g.

(use facts in simp)

(use facts in ‹simp add: ...›)

* The old proof method "default" has been removed (legacy since

Isabelle2016). INCOMPATIBILITY, use "standard" instead.

*** Pure ***

* Pure provides basic versions of proof methods "simp" and "simp_all"

that only know about meta-equality (==). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in

theory imports that merge Pure with e.g. Main of Isabelle/HOL: the order

is relevant to avoid confusion of Pure.simp vs. HOL.simp.

* The command 'unfolding' and proof method "unfold" include a second

stage where given equations are passed through the attribute "abs_def"

before rewriting. This ensures that definitions are fully expanded,

regardless of the actual parameters that are provided. Rare

INCOMPATIBILITY in some corner cases: use proof method (simp only:)

instead, or declare [[unfold_abs_def = false]] in the proof context.

* Type-inference improves sorts of newly introduced type variables for

the object-logic, using its base sort (i.e. HOL.type for Isabelle/HOL).

Thus terms like "f x" or "⋀x. P x" without any further syntactic context

produce x::'a::type in HOL instead of x::'a::{} in Pure. Rare

INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide explicit type constraints for Pure

types where this is really intended.

*** HOL ***

* New proof method "argo" using the built-in Argo solver based on SMT

technology. The method can be used to prove goals of quantifier-free

propositional logic, goals based on a combination of quantifier-free

propositional logic with equality, and goals based on a combination of

quantifier-free propositional logic with linear real arithmetic

including min/max/abs. See HOL/ex/Argo_Examples.thy for examples.

* The new "nunchaku" program integrates the Nunchaku model finder. The

tool is experimental. See ~~/src/HOL/Nunchaku/Nunchaku.thy for details.

* Metis: The problem encoding has changed very slightly. This might

break existing proofs. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Sledgehammer:

- The MaSh relevance filter is now faster than before.

- Produce syntactically correct Vampire 4.0 problem files.

* (Co)datatype package:

- New commands for defining corecursive functions and reasoning about

them in "~~/src/HOL/Library/BNF_Corec.thy": 'corec', 'corecursive',

'friend_of_corec', and 'corecursion_upto'; and 'corec_unique' proof

method. See 'isabelle doc corec'.

- The predicator :: ('a ⇒ bool) ⇒ 'a F ⇒ bool is now a first-class

citizen in bounded natural functors.

- 'primrec' now allows nested calls through the predicator in addition

to the map function.

- 'bnf' automatically discharges reflexive proof obligations.

- 'bnf' outputs a slightly modified proof obligation expressing rel in

terms of map and set

(not giving a specification for rel makes this one reflexive).

- 'bnf' outputs a new proof obligation expressing pred in terms of set

(not giving a specification for pred makes this one reflexive).

INCOMPATIBILITY: manual 'bnf' declarations may need adjustment.

- Renamed lemmas:

rel_prod_apply ~> rel_prod_inject

pred_prod_apply ~> pred_prod_inject

INCOMPATIBILITY.

- The "size" plugin has been made compatible again with locales.

- The theorems about "rel" and "set" may have a slightly different (but

equivalent) form.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* The 'coinductive' command produces a proper coinduction rule for

mutual coinductive predicates. This new rule replaces the old rule,

which exposed details of the internal fixpoint construction and was

hard to use. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* New abbreviations for negated existence (but not bounded existence):

∄x. P x ≡ ¬ (∃x. P x)

∄!x. P x ≡ ¬ (∃!x. P x)

* The print mode "HOL" for ASCII syntax of binders "!", "?", "?!", "@"

has been removed for output. It is retained for input only, until it is

eliminated altogether.

* The unique existence quantifier no longer provides 'binder' syntax,

but uses syntax translations (as for bounded unique existence). Thus

iterated quantification ∃!x y. P x y with its slightly confusing

sequential meaning ∃!x. ∃!y. P x y is no longer possible. Instead,

pattern abstraction admits simultaneous unique existence ∃!(x, y). P x y

(analogous to existing notation ∃!(x, y)∈A. P x y). Potential

INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.

* Conventional syntax "%(). t" for unit abstractions. Slight syntactic

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Renamed constants and corresponding theorems:

setsum ~> sum

setprod ~> prod

listsum ~> sum_list

listprod ~> prod_list

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Sligthly more standardized theorem names:

sgn_times ~> sgn_mult

sgn_mult' ~> Real_Vector_Spaces.sgn_mult

divide_zero_left ~> div_0

zero_mod_left ~> mod_0

divide_zero ~> div_by_0

divide_1 ~> div_by_1

nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_left ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left

div_mult_self1_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left

nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_right ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right

div_mult_self2_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right

is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_left ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_left

is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_right ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_right

mod_div_equality ~> div_mult_mod_eq

mod_div_equality2 ~> mult_div_mod_eq

mod_div_equality3 ~> mod_div_mult_eq

mod_div_equality4 ~> mod_mult_div_eq

minus_div_eq_mod ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod

minus_div_eq_mod2 ~> minus_mult_div_eq_mod

minus_mod_eq_div ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult

minus_mod_eq_div2 ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div

div_mod_equality' ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult [symmetric]

mod_div_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]

zmod_zdiv_equality ~> mult_div_mod_eq [symmetric]

zmod_zdiv_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]

Divides.mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]

mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]

zmult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]

div_1 ~> div_by_Suc_0

mod_1 ~> mod_by_Suc_0

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* New type class "idom_abs_sgn" specifies algebraic properties

of sign and absolute value functions. Type class "sgn_if" has

disappeared. Slight INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Dedicated syntax LENGTH('a) for length of types.

* Characters (type char) are modelled as finite algebraic type

corresponding to {0..255}.

- Logical representation:

* 0 is instantiated to the ASCII zero character.

* All other characters are represented as "Char n"

with n being a raw numeral expression less than 256.

* Expressions of the form "Char n" with n greater than 255

are non-canonical.

- Printing and parsing:

* Printable characters are printed and parsed as "CHR ''…''"

(as before).

* The ASCII zero character is printed and parsed as "0".

* All other canonical characters are printed as "CHR 0xXX"

with XX being the hexadecimal character code. "CHR n"

is parsable for every numeral expression n.

* Non-canonical characters have no special syntax and are

printed as their logical representation.

- Explicit conversions from and to the natural numbers are

provided as char_of_nat, nat_of_char (as before).

- The auxiliary nibble type has been discontinued.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Type class "div" with operation "mod" renamed to type class "modulo"

with operation "modulo", analogously to type class "divide". This

eliminates the need to qualify any of those names in the presence of

infix "mod" syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Statements and proofs of Knaster-Tarski fixpoint combinators lfp/gfp

have been clarified. The fixpoint properties are lfp_fixpoint, its

symmetric lfp_unfold (as before), and the duals for gfp. Auxiliary items

for the proof (lfp_lemma2 etc.) are no longer exported, but can be

easily recovered by composition with eq_refl. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Constant "surj" is a mere input abbreviation, to avoid hiding an

equation in term output. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Command 'code_reflect' accepts empty constructor lists for datatypes,

which renders those abstract effectively.

* Command 'export_code' checks given constants for abstraction

violations: a small guarantee that given constants specify a safe

interface for the generated code.

* Code generation for Scala: ambiguous implicts in class diagrams are

spelt out explicitly.

* Static evaluators (Code_Evaluation.static_* in Isabelle/ML) rely on

explicitly provided auxiliary definitions for required type class

dictionaries rather than half-working magic. INCOMPATIBILITY, see the

tutorial on code generation for details.

* Theory Set_Interval: substantial new theorems on indexed sums and

products.

* Locale bijection establishes convenient default simp rules such as

"inv f (f a) = a" for total bijections.

* Abstract locales semigroup, abel_semigroup, semilattice,

semilattice_neutr, ordering, ordering_top, semilattice_order,

semilattice_neutr_order, comm_monoid_set, semilattice_set,

semilattice_neutr_set, semilattice_order_set,

semilattice_order_neutr_set monoid_list, comm_monoid_list,

comm_monoid_list_set, comm_monoid_mset, comm_monoid_fun use boldified

syntax uniformly that does not clash with corresponding global syntax.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Former locale lifting_syntax is now a bundle, which is easier to

include in a local context or theorem statement, e.g. "context includes

lifting_syntax begin ... end". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Some old / obsolete theorems have been renamed / removed, potential

INCOMPATIBILITY.

nat_less_cases -- removed, use linorder_cases instead

inv_image_comp -- removed, use image_inv_f_f instead

image_surj_f_inv_f ~> image_f_inv_f

* Some theorems about groups and orders have been generalised from

groups to semi-groups that are also monoids:

le_add_same_cancel1

le_add_same_cancel2

less_add_same_cancel1

less_add_same_cancel2

add_le_same_cancel1

add_le_same_cancel2

add_less_same_cancel1

add_less_same_cancel2

* Some simplifications theorems about rings have been removed, since

superseeded by a more general version:

less_add_cancel_left_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel1

less_add_cancel_right_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel2

less_eq_add_cancel_left_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel1

less_eq_add_cancel_right_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel2

less_eq_add_cancel_left_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel1

less_eq_add_cancel_right_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel2

less_add_cancel_left_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel1

less_add_cancel_right_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel2

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Renamed split_if -> if_split and split_if_asm -> if_split_asm to

resemble the f.split naming convention, INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Added class topological_monoid.

* The following theorems have been renamed:

setsum_left_distrib ~> sum_distrib_right

setsum_right_distrib ~> sum_distrib_left

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Compound constants INFIMUM and SUPREMUM are mere abbreviations now.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* "Gcd (f ` A)" and "Lcm (f ` A)" are printed with optional

comprehension-like syntax analogously to "Inf (f ` A)" and "Sup (f `

A)".

* Class semiring_Lcd merged into semiring_Gcd. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* The type class ordered_comm_monoid_add is now called

ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add. A new type class ordered_comm_monoid_add

is introduced as the combination of ordered_ab_semigroup_add +

comm_monoid_add. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Introduced the type classes canonically_ordered_comm_monoid_add and

dioid.

* Introduced the type class ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. When

instantiating linordered_semiring_strict and ordered_ab_group_add, an

explicit instantiation of ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le might

be required. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Dropped various legacy fact bindings, whose replacements are often

of a more general type also:

lcm_left_commute_nat ~> lcm.left_commute

lcm_left_commute_int ~> lcm.left_commute

gcd_left_commute_nat ~> gcd.left_commute

gcd_left_commute_int ~> gcd.left_commute

gcd_greatest_iff_nat ~> gcd_greatest_iff

gcd_greatest_iff_int ~> gcd_greatest_iff

coprime_dvd_mult_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult

coprime_dvd_mult_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult

zpower_numeral_even ~> power_numeral_even

gcd_mult_cancel_nat ~> gcd_mult_cancel

gcd_mult_cancel_int ~> gcd_mult_cancel

div_gcd_coprime_nat ~> div_gcd_coprime

div_gcd_coprime_int ~> div_gcd_coprime

zpower_numeral_odd ~> power_numeral_odd

zero_less_int_conv ~> of_nat_0_less_iff

gcd_greatest_nat ~> gcd_greatest

gcd_greatest_int ~> gcd_greatest

coprime_mult_nat ~> coprime_mult

coprime_mult_int ~> coprime_mult

lcm_commute_nat ~> lcm.commute

lcm_commute_int ~> lcm.commute

int_less_0_conv ~> of_nat_less_0_iff

gcd_commute_nat ~> gcd.commute

gcd_commute_int ~> gcd.commute

Gcd_insert_nat ~> Gcd_insert

Gcd_insert_int ~> Gcd_insert

of_int_int_eq ~> of_int_of_nat_eq

lcm_least_nat ~> lcm_least

lcm_least_int ~> lcm_least

lcm_assoc_nat ~> lcm.assoc

lcm_assoc_int ~> lcm.assoc

int_le_0_conv ~> of_nat_le_0_iff

int_eq_0_conv ~> of_nat_eq_0_iff

Gcd_empty_nat ~> Gcd_empty

Gcd_empty_int ~> Gcd_empty

gcd_assoc_nat ~> gcd.assoc

gcd_assoc_int ~> gcd.assoc

zero_zle_int ~> of_nat_0_le_iff

lcm_dvd2_nat ~> dvd_lcm2

lcm_dvd2_int ~> dvd_lcm2

lcm_dvd1_nat ~> dvd_lcm1

lcm_dvd1_int ~> dvd_lcm1

gcd_zero_nat ~> gcd_eq_0_iff

gcd_zero_int ~> gcd_eq_0_iff

gcd_dvd2_nat ~> gcd_dvd2

gcd_dvd2_int ~> gcd_dvd2

gcd_dvd1_nat ~> gcd_dvd1

gcd_dvd1_int ~> gcd_dvd1

int_numeral ~> of_nat_numeral

lcm_ac_nat ~> ac_simps

lcm_ac_int ~> ac_simps

gcd_ac_nat ~> ac_simps

gcd_ac_int ~> ac_simps

abs_int_eq ~> abs_of_nat

zless_int ~> of_nat_less_iff

zdiff_int ~> of_nat_diff

zadd_int ~> of_nat_add

int_mult ~> of_nat_mult

int_Suc ~> of_nat_Suc

inj_int ~> inj_of_nat

int_1 ~> of_nat_1

int_0 ~> of_nat_0

Lcm_empty_nat ~> Lcm_empty

Lcm_empty_int ~> Lcm_empty

Lcm_insert_nat ~> Lcm_insert

Lcm_insert_int ~> Lcm_insert

comp_fun_idem_gcd_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd

comp_fun_idem_gcd_int ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd

comp_fun_idem_lcm_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm

comp_fun_idem_lcm_int ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm

Lcm_eq_0 ~> Lcm_eq_0_I

Lcm0_iff ~> Lcm_0_iff

Lcm_dvd_int ~> Lcm_least

divides_mult_nat ~> divides_mult

divides_mult_int ~> divides_mult

lcm_0_nat ~> lcm_0_right

lcm_0_int ~> lcm_0_right

lcm_0_left_nat ~> lcm_0_left

lcm_0_left_int ~> lcm_0_left

dvd_gcd_D1_nat ~> dvd_gcdD1

dvd_gcd_D1_int ~> dvd_gcdD1

dvd_gcd_D2_nat ~> dvd_gcdD2

dvd_gcd_D2_int ~> dvd_gcdD2

coprime_dvd_mult_iff_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff

coprime_dvd_mult_iff_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff

realpow_minus_mult ~> power_minus_mult

realpow_Suc_le_self ~> power_Suc_le_self

dvd_Gcd, dvd_Gcd_nat, dvd_Gcd_int removed in favour of Gcd_greatest

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Renamed HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy to

HOL/Quotient_Examples/Quotient_FSet.thy INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Session HOL-Library: theory FinFun bundles "finfun_syntax" and

"no_finfun_syntax" allow to control optional syntax in local contexts;

this supersedes former theory FinFun_Syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, e.g. use

"unbundle finfun_syntax" to imitate import of

"~~/src/HOL/Library/FinFun_Syntax".

* Session HOL-Library: theory Multiset_Permutations (executably) defines

the set of permutations of a given set or multiset, i.e. the set of all

lists that contain every element of the carrier (multi-)set exactly

once.

* Session HOL-Library: multiset membership is now expressed using

set_mset rather than count.

- Expressions "count M a > 0" and similar simplify to membership

by default.

- Converting between "count M a = 0" and non-membership happens using

equations count_eq_zero_iff and not_in_iff.

- Rules count_inI and in_countE obtain facts of the form

"count M a = n" from membership.

- Rules count_in_diffI and in_diff_countE obtain facts of the form

"count M a = n + count N a" from membership on difference sets.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Session HOL-Library: theory LaTeXsugar uses new-style "dummy_pats" for

displaying equations in functional programming style --- variables

present on the left-hand but not on the righ-hand side are replaced by

underscores.

* Session HOL-Library: theory Combinator_PER provides combinator to

build partial equivalence relations from a predicate and an equivalence

relation.

* Session HOL-Library: theory Perm provides basic facts about almost

everywhere fix bijections.

* Session HOL-Library: theory Normalized_Fraction allows viewing an

element of a field of fractions as a normalized fraction (i.e. a pair of

numerator and denominator such that the two are coprime and the

denominator is normalized wrt. unit factors).

* Session HOL-NSA has been renamed to HOL-Nonstandard_Analysis.

* Session HOL-Multivariate_Analysis has been renamed to HOL-Analysis.

* Session HOL-Analysis: measure theory has been moved here from

HOL-Probability. When importing HOL-Analysis some theorems need

additional name spaces prefixes due to name clashes. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Session HOL-Analysis: more complex analysis including Cauchy's

inequality, Liouville theorem, open mapping theorem, maximum modulus

principle, Residue theorem, Schwarz Lemma.

* Session HOL-Analysis: Theory of polyhedra: faces, extreme points,

polytopes, and the Krein–Milman Minkowski theorem.

* Session HOL-Analysis: Numerous results ported from the HOL Light

libraries: homeomorphisms, continuous function extensions, invariance of

domain.

* Session HOL-Probability: the type of emeasure and nn_integral was

changed from ereal to ennreal, INCOMPATIBILITY.

emeasure :: 'a measure ⇒ 'a set ⇒ ennreal

nn_integral :: 'a measure ⇒ ('a ⇒ ennreal) ⇒ ennreal

* Session HOL-Probability: Code generation and QuickCheck for

Probability Mass Functions.

* Session HOL-Probability: theory Random_Permutations contains some

theory about choosing a permutation of a set uniformly at random and

folding over a list in random order.

* Session HOL-Probability: theory SPMF formalises discrete

subprobability distributions.

* Session HOL-Library: the names of multiset theorems have been

normalised to distinguish which ordering the theorems are about

mset_less_eqI ~> mset_subset_eqI

mset_less_insertD ~> mset_subset_insertD

mset_less_eq_count ~> mset_subset_eq_count

mset_less_diff_self ~> mset_subset_diff_self

mset_le_exists_conv ~> mset_subset_eq_exists_conv

mset_le_mono_add_right_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel

mset_le_mono_add_left_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel

mset_le_mono_add ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add

mset_le_add_left ~> mset_subset_eq_add_left

mset_le_add_right ~> mset_subset_eq_add_right

mset_le_single ~> mset_subset_eq_single

mset_le_multiset_union_diff_commute ~> mset_subset_eq_multiset_union_diff_commute

diff_le_self ~> diff_subset_eq_self

mset_leD ~> mset_subset_eqD

mset_lessD ~> mset_subsetD

mset_le_insertD ~> mset_subset_eq_insertD

mset_less_of_empty ~> mset_subset_of_empty

mset_less_size ~> mset_subset_size

wf_less_mset_rel ~> wf_subset_mset_rel

count_le_replicate_mset_le ~> count_le_replicate_mset_subset_eq

mset_remdups_le ~> mset_remdups_subset_eq

ms_lesseq_impl ~> subset_eq_mset_impl

Some functions have been renamed:

ms_lesseq_impl -> subset_eq_mset_impl

* HOL-Library: multisets are now ordered with the multiset ordering

#⊆# ~> ≤

#⊂# ~> <

le_multiset ~> less_eq_multiset

less_multiset ~> le_multiset

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Session HOL-Library: the prefix multiset_order has been discontinued:

the theorems can be directly accessed. As a consequence, the lemmas

"order_multiset" and "linorder_multiset" have been discontinued, and the

interpretations "multiset_linorder" and "multiset_wellorder" have been

replaced by instantiations. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Session HOL-Library: some theorems about the multiset ordering have

been renamed:

le_multiset_def ~> less_eq_multiset_def

less_multiset_def ~> le_multiset_def

less_eq_imp_le_multiset ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset

mult_less_not_refl ~> mset_le_not_refl

mult_less_trans ~> mset_le_trans

mult_less_not_sym ~> mset_le_not_sym

mult_less_asym ~> mset_le_asym

mult_less_irrefl ~> mset_le_irrefl

union_less_mono2{,1,2} ~> union_le_mono2{,1,2}

le_multiset_{H}_{O}~> less_eq_multiset_{H}_{O}

le_multiset_total ~> less_eq_multiset_total

less_multiset_right_total ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset

le_multiset_empty_left ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_left

le_multiset_empty_right ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_right

less_multiset_empty_right ~> le_multiset_empty_left

less_multiset_empty_left ~> le_multiset_empty_right

union_less_diff_plus ~> union_le_diff_plus

ex_gt_count_imp_less_multiset ~> ex_gt_count_imp_le_multiset

less_multiset_plus_left_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_left_nonempty

le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Session HOL-Library: the lemma mset_map has now the attribute [simp].

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Session HOL-Library: some theorems about multisets have been removed.

INCOMPATIBILITY, use the following replacements:

le_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right

less_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right

le_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left

less_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left

add_eq_self_empty_iff ~> add_cancel_left_right

mset_subset_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right

mset_less_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right

mset_le_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right

empty_inter ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_left

inter_empty ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_right

empty_sup ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_left

sup_empty ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_right

bdd_below_multiset ~> subset_mset.bdd_above_bot

subset_eq_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq

le_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq

mset_subset_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero

mset_less_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero

* Session HOL-Library: some typeclass constraints about multisets have

been reduced from ordered or linordered to preorder. Multisets have the

additional typeclasses order_bot, no_top,

ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le, ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add,

linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add, and

ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Session HOL-Library: there are some new simplification rules about

multisets, the multiset ordering, and the subset ordering on multisets.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Session HOL-Library: the subset ordering on multisets has now the

interpretations ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le and

bounded_lattice_bot. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: single has been removed in favor

of add_mset that roughly corresponds to Set.insert. Some theorems have

removed or changed:

single_not_empty ~> add_mset_not_empty or empty_not_add_mset

fold_mset_insert ~> fold_mset_add_mset

image_mset_insert ~> image_mset_add_mset

union_single_eq_diff

multi_self_add_other_not_self

diff_single_eq_union

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: some theorems have been changed

to use add_mset instead of single:

mset_add

multi_self_add_other_not_self

diff_single_eq_union

union_single_eq_diff

union_single_eq_member

add_eq_conv_diff

insert_noteq_member

add_eq_conv_ex

multi_member_split

multiset_add_sub_el_shuffle

mset_subset_eq_insertD

mset_subset_insertD

insert_subset_eq_iff

insert_union_subset_iff

multi_psub_of_add_self

inter_add_left1

inter_add_left2

inter_add_right1

inter_add_right2

sup_union_left1

sup_union_left2

sup_union_right1

sup_union_right2

size_eq_Suc_imp_eq_union

multi_nonempty_split

mset_insort

mset_update

mult1I

less_add

mset_zip_take_Cons_drop_twice

rel_mset_Zero

msed_map_invL

msed_map_invR

msed_rel_invL

msed_rel_invR

le_multiset_right_total

multiset_induct

multiset_induct2_size

multiset_induct2

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the definitions of some

constants have changed to use add_mset instead of adding a single

element:

image_mset

mset

replicate_mset

mult1

pred_mset

rel_mset'

mset_insort

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: due to the above changes, the

attributes of some multiset theorems have been changed:

insert_DiffM [] ~> [simp]

insert_DiffM2 [simp] ~> []

diff_add_mset_swap [simp]

fold_mset_add_mset [simp]

diff_diff_add [simp] (for multisets only)

diff_cancel [simp] ~> []

count_single [simp] ~> []

set_mset_single [simp] ~> []

size_multiset_single [simp] ~> []

size_single [simp] ~> []

image_mset_single [simp] ~> []

mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel [simp] ~> []

mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel [simp] ~> []

fold_mset_single [simp] ~> []

subset_eq_empty [simp] ~> []

empty_sup [simp] ~> []

sup_empty [simp] ~> []

inter_empty [simp] ~> []

empty_inter [simp] ~> []

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the order of the variables in

the second cases of multiset_induct, multiset_induct2_size,

multiset_induct2 has been changed (e.g. Add A a ~> Add a A).

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: there is now a simplification

procedure on multisets. It mimics the behavior of the procedure on

natural numbers. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: renamed sums and products of

multisets:

msetsum ~> sum_mset

msetprod ~> prod_mset

* Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the notation for intersection

and union of multisets have been changed:

#∩ ~> ∩#

#∪ ~> ∪#

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the lemma

one_step_implies_mult_aux on multisets has been removed, use

one_step_implies_mult instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Session HOL-Library: theory Complete_Partial_Order2 provides reasoning

support for monotonicity and continuity in chain-complete partial orders

and about admissibility conditions for fixpoint inductions.

* Session HOL-Library: theory Library/Polynomial contains also

derivation of polynomials (formerly in Library/Poly_Deriv) but not

gcd/lcm on polynomials over fields. This has been moved to a separate

theory Library/Polynomial_GCD_euclidean.thy, to pave way for a possible

future different type class instantiation for polynomials over factorial

rings. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Session HOL-Library: theory Sublist provides function "prefixes" with

the following renaming

prefixeq -> prefix

prefix -> strict_prefix

suffixeq -> suffix

suffix -> strict_suffix

Added theory of longest common prefixes.

* Session HOL-Number_Theory: algebraic foundation for primes:

Generalisation of predicate "prime" and introduction of predicates

"prime_elem", "irreducible", a "prime_factorization" function, and the

"factorial_ring" typeclass with instance proofs for nat, int, poly. Some

theorems now have different names, most notably "prime_def" is now

"prime_nat_iff". INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Session Old_Number_Theory has been removed, after porting remaining

theories.

* Session HOL-Types_To_Sets provides an experimental extension of

Higher-Order Logic to allow translation of types to sets.

*** ML ***

* Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm use efficient operations from the Poly/ML

library (notably for big integers). Subtle change of semantics:

Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm both normalize the sign, results are never

negative. This coincides with the definitions in HOL/GCD.thy.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Structure Rat for rational numbers is now an integral part of

Isabelle/ML, with special notation @int/nat or @int for numerals (an

abbreviation for antiquotation @{Pure.rat argument}) and ML pretty

printing. Standard operations on type Rat.rat are provided via ad-hoc

overloading of + - * / < <= > >= ~ abs. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to

use + instead of +/ etc. Moreover, exception Rat.DIVZERO has been

superseded by General.Div.

* ML antiquotation @{path} is superseded by @{file}, which ensures that

the argument is a plain file. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Antiquotation @{make_string} is available during Pure bootstrap --

with approximative output quality.

* Low-level ML system structures (like PolyML and RunCall) are no longer

exposed to Isabelle/ML user-space. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

* The ML function "ML" provides easy access to run-time compilation.

This is particularly useful for conditional compilation, without

requiring separate files.

* Option ML_exception_debugger controls detailed exception trace via the

Poly/ML debugger. Relevant ML modules need to be compiled beforehand

with ML_file_debug, or with ML_file and option ML_debugger enabled. Note

debugger information requires consirable time and space: main

Isabelle/HOL with full debugger support may need ML_system_64.

* Local_Theory.restore has been renamed to Local_Theory.reset to

emphasize its disruptive impact on the cumulative context, notably the

scope of 'private' or 'qualified' names. Note that Local_Theory.reset is

only appropriate when targets are managed, e.g. starting from a global

theory and returning to it. Regular definitional packages should use

balanced blocks of Local_Theory.open_target versus

Local_Theory.close_target instead. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Structure TimeLimit (originally from the SML/NJ library) has been

replaced by structure Timeout, with slightly different signature.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Discontinued cd and pwd operations, which are not well-defined in a

multi-threaded environment. Note that files are usually located

relatively to the master directory of a theory (see also

File.full_path). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Binding.empty_atts supersedes Thm.empty_binding and

Attrib.empty_binding. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

*** System ***

* SML/NJ and old versions of Poly/ML are no longer supported.

* Poly/ML heaps now follow the hierarchy of sessions, and thus require

much less disk space.

* The Isabelle ML process is now managed directly by Isabelle/Scala, and

shell scripts merely provide optional command-line access. In

particular:

. Scala module ML_Process to connect to the raw ML process,

with interaction via stdin/stdout/stderr or in batch mode;

. command-line tool "isabelle console" as interactive wrapper;

. command-line tool "isabelle process" as batch mode wrapper.

* The executable "isabelle_process" has been discontinued. Tools and

prover front-ends should use ML_Process or Isabelle_Process in

Isabelle/Scala. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* New command-line tool "isabelle process" supports ML evaluation of

literal expressions (option -e) or files (option -f) in the context of a

given heap image. Errors lead to premature exit of the ML process with

return code 1.

* The command-line tool "isabelle build" supports option -N for cyclic

shuffling of NUMA CPU nodes. This may help performance tuning on Linux

servers with separate CPU/memory modules.

* System option "threads" (for the size of the Isabelle/ML thread farm)

is also passed to the underlying ML runtime system as --gcthreads,

unless there is already a default provided via ML_OPTIONS settings.

* System option "checkpoint" helps to fine-tune the global heap space

management of isabelle build. This is relevant for big sessions that may

exhaust the small 32-bit address space of the ML process (which is used

by default).

* System option "profiling" specifies the mode for global ML profiling

in "isabelle build". Possible values are "time", "allocations". The

command-line tool "isabelle profiling_report" helps to digest the

resulting log files.

* System option "ML_process_policy" specifies an optional command prefix

for the underlying ML process, e.g. to control CPU affinity on

multiprocessor systems. The "isabelle jedit" tool allows to override the

implicit default via option -p.

* Command-line tool "isabelle console" provides option -r to help to

bootstrapping Isabelle/Pure interactively.

* Command-line tool "isabelle yxml" has been discontinued.

INCOMPATIBILITY, use operations from the modules "XML" and "YXML" in

Isabelle/ML or Isabelle/Scala.

* Many Isabelle tools that require a Java runtime system refer to the

settings ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS64,

depending on the underlying platform. The settings for "isabelle build"

ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64 have been

discontinued. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

* The Isabelle system environment always ensures that the main

executables are found within the shell search $PATH: "isabelle" and

"isabelle_scala_script".

* Isabelle tools may consist of .scala files: the Scala compiler is

invoked on the spot. The source needs to define some object that extends

Isabelle_Tool.Body.

* File.bash_string, File.bash_path etc. represent Isabelle/ML and

Isabelle/Scala strings authentically within GNU bash. This is useful to

produce robust shell scripts under program control, without worrying

about spaces or special characters. Note that user output works via

Path.print (ML) or Path.toString (Scala). INCOMPATIBILITY, the old (and

less versatile) operations File.shell_quote, File.shell_path etc. have

been discontinued.

* The isabelle_java executable allows to run a Java process within the

name space of Java and Scala components that are bundled with Isabelle,

but without the Isabelle settings environment.

* Isabelle/Scala: the SSH module supports ssh and sftp connections, for

remote command-execution and file-system access. This resembles

operations from module File and Isabelle_System to some extent. Note

that Path specifications need to be resolved remotely via

ssh.remote_path instead of File.standard_path: the implicit process

environment is different, Isabelle settings are not available remotely.

* Isabelle/Scala: the Mercurial module supports repositories via the

regular hg command-line interface. The repositroy clone and working

directory may reside on a local or remote file-system (via ssh

connection).

New in Isabelle2016 (February 2016)

-----------------------------------

*** General ***

* Eisbach is now based on Pure instead of HOL. Objects-logics may import

either the theory ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach (for HOL etc.) or

~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach_Old_Appl_Syntax (for FOL, ZF etc.). Note that

the HOL-Eisbach session located in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/ contains further

examples that do require HOL.

* Better resource usage on all platforms (Linux, Windows, Mac OS X) for

both Isabelle/ML and Isabelle/Scala. Slightly reduced heap space usage.

* Former "xsymbols" syntax with Isabelle symbols is used by default,

without any special print mode. Important ASCII replacement syntax

remains available under print mode "ASCII", but less important syntax

has been removed (see below).

* Support for more arrow symbols, with rendering in LaTeX and Isabelle

fonts: ⇚ ⇛ ⤎ ⤏ ⇠ ⇢.

* Special notation \<struct> for the first implicit 'structure' in the

context has been discontinued. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit

structure name instead, notably in indexed notation with block-subscript

(e.g. ⊙⇘A⇙).

* The glyph for ◇ in the IsabelleText font now corresponds better to its

counterpart □ as quantifier-like symbol. A small diamond is available as

⋄; the old symbol \<struct> loses this rendering and any special

meaning.

* Syntax for formal comments "-- text" now also supports the symbolic

form "― text". Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -c" helps

to update old sources.

* Toplevel theorem statements have been simplified as follows:

theorems ~> lemmas

schematic_lemma ~> schematic_goal

schematic_theorem ~> schematic_goal

schematic_corollary ~> schematic_goal

Command-line tool "isabelle update_theorems" updates theory sources

accordingly.

* Toplevel theorem statement 'proposition' is another alias for

'theorem'.

* The old 'defs' command has been removed (legacy since Isabelle2014).

INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular 'definition' instead. Overloaded and/or

deferred definitions require a surrounding 'overloading' block.

*** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***

* IDE support for the source-level debugger of Poly/ML, to work with

Isabelle/ML and official Standard ML. Option "ML_debugger" and commands

'ML_file_debug', 'ML_file_no_debug', 'SML_file_debug',

'SML_file_no_debug' control compilation of sources with or without

debugging information. The Debugger panel allows to set breakpoints (via

context menu), step through stopped threads, evaluate local ML

expressions etc. At least one Debugger view needs to be active to have

any effect on the running ML program.

* The State panel manages explicit proof state output, with dynamic

auto-update according to cursor movement. Alternatively, the jEdit

action "isabelle.update-state" (shortcut S+ENTER) triggers manual

update.

* The Output panel no longer shows proof state output by default, to

avoid GUI overcrowding. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the State panel instead or

enable option "editor_output_state".

* The text overview column (status of errors, warnings etc.) is updated

asynchronously, leading to much better editor reactivity. Moreover, the

full document node content is taken into account. The width of the

column is scaled according to the main text area font, for improved

visibility.

* The main text area no longer changes its color hue in outdated

situations. The text overview column takes over the role to indicate

unfinished edits in the PIDE pipeline. This avoids flashing text display

due to ad-hoc updates by auxiliary GUI components, such as the State

panel.

* Slightly improved scheduling for urgent print tasks (e.g. command

state output, interactive queries) wrt. long-running background tasks.

* Completion of symbols via prefix of \<name> or \<^name> or \name is

always possible, independently of the language context. It is never

implicit: a popup will show up unconditionally.

* Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified in

$ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs, with

support for simple templates using ASCII 007 (bell) as placeholder.

* Symbols ⊕, ⨁, ⊗, ⨂, ⊙, ⨀, ⊖, ⊘ no longer provide abbreviations for

completion like "+o", "*o", ".o" etc. -- due to conflicts with other

ASCII syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain backslash-completion or define

suitable abbreviations in $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs.

* Action "isabelle-emph" (with keyboard shortcut C+e LEFT) controls

emphasized text style; the effect is visible in document output, not in

the editor.

* Action "isabelle-reset" now uses keyboard shortcut C+e BACK_SPACE,

instead of former C+e LEFT.

* The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" and the isabelle.Main

application wrapper treat the default $USER_HOME/Scratch.thy more

uniformly, and allow the dummy file argument ":" to open an empty buffer

instead.

* New command-line tool "isabelle jedit_client" allows to connect to an

already running Isabelle/jEdit process. This achieves the effect of

single-instance applications seen on common GUI desktops.

* The default look-and-feel for Linux is the traditional "Metal", which

works better with GUI scaling for very high-resolution displays (e.g.

4K). Moreover, it is generally more robust than "Nimbus".

* Update to jedit-5.3.0, with improved GUI scaling and support of

high-resolution displays (e.g. 4K).

* The main Isabelle executable is managed as single-instance Desktop

application uniformly on all platforms: Linux, Windows, Mac OS X.

*** Document preparation ***

* Commands 'paragraph' and 'subparagraph' provide additional section

headings. Thus there are 6 levels of standard headings, as in HTML.

* Command 'text_raw' has been clarified: input text is processed as in

'text' (with antiquotations and control symbols). The key difference is

the lack of the surrounding isabelle markup environment in output.

* Text is structured in paragraphs and nested lists, using notation that

is similar to Markdown. The control symbols for list items are as

follows:

▪ itemize

▸ enumerate

➧ description

* There is a new short form for antiquotations with a single argument

that is a cartouche: \<^name>‹...› is equivalent to @{name ‹...›} and

‹...› without control symbol is equivalent to @{cartouche ‹...›}.

\<^name> without following cartouche is equivalent to @{name}. The

standard Isabelle fonts provide glyphs to render important control

symbols, e.g. "▩", "∗", "❙".

* Antiquotations @{noindent}, @{smallskip}, @{medskip}, @{bigskip} with

corresponding control symbols ⇤, ┈, ┉, ━ specify spacing formally, using

standard LaTeX macros of the same names.

* Antiquotation @{cartouche} in Isabelle/Pure is the same as @{text}.

Consequently, ‹...› without any decoration prints literal quasi-formal

text. Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -t" helps to update

old sources, by approximative patching of the content of string and

cartouche tokens seen in theory sources.

* The @{text} antiquotation now ignores the antiquotation option

"source". The given text content is output unconditionally, without any

surrounding quotes etc. Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, put quotes into the

argument where they are really intended, e.g. @{text ‹"foo"›}. Initial

or terminal spaces are ignored.

* Antiquotations @{emph} and @{bold} output LaTeX source recursively,

adding appropriate text style markup. These may be used in the short

form ∗‹...› and ❙‹...›.

* Document antiquotation @{footnote} outputs LaTeX source recursively,

marked as \footnote{}. This may be used in the short form ⁋‹...›.

* Antiquotation @{verbatim [display]} supports option "indent".

* Antiquotation @{theory_text} prints uninterpreted theory source text

(Isar outer syntax with command keywords etc.). This may be used in the

short form ⬚‹...›. @{theory_text [display]} supports option "indent".

* Antiquotation @{doc ENTRY} provides a reference to the given

documentation, with a hyperlink in the Prover IDE.

* Antiquotations @{command}, @{method}, @{attribute} print checked

entities of the Isar language.

* HTML presentation uses the standard IsabelleText font and Unicode

rendering of Isabelle symbols like Isabelle/Scala/jEdit. The former

print mode "HTML" loses its special meaning.

*** Isar ***

* Local goals ('have', 'show', 'hence', 'thus') allow structured rule

statements like fixes/assumes/shows in theorem specifications, but the

notation is postfix with keywords 'if' (or 'when') and 'for'. For

example:

have result: "C x y"

if "A x" and "B y"

for x :: 'a and y :: 'a

<proof>

The local assumptions are bound to the name "that". The result is

exported from context of the statement as usual. The above roughly

corresponds to a raw proof block like this:

{

fix x :: 'a and y :: 'a

assume that: "A x" "B y"

have "C x y" <proof>

}

note result = this

The keyword 'when' may be used instead of 'if', to indicate 'presume'

instead of 'assume' above.

* Assumptions ('assume', 'presume') allow structured rule statements

using 'if' and 'for', similar to 'have' etc. above. For example:

assume result: "C x y"

if "A x" and "B y"

for x :: 'a and y :: 'a

This assumes "⋀x y::'a. A x ⟹ B y ⟹ C x y" and produces a general

result as usual: "A ?x ⟹ B ?y ⟹ C ?x ?y".

Vacuous quantification in assumptions is omitted, i.e. a for-context

only effects propositions according to actual use of variables. For

example:

assume "A x" and "B y" for x and y

is equivalent to:

assume "⋀x. A x" and "⋀y. B y"

* The meaning of 'show' with Pure rule statements has changed: premises

are treated in the sense of 'assume', instead of 'presume'. This means,

a goal like "⋀x. A x ⟹ B x ⟹ C x" can be solved completely as

follows:

show "⋀x. A x ⟹ B x ⟹ C x"

or:

show "C x" if "A x" "B x" for x

Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, the old behaviour may be recovered as follows:

show "C x" when "A x" "B x" for x

* New command 'consider' states rules for generalized elimination and

case splitting. This is like a toplevel statement "theorem obtains" used

within a proof body; or like a multi-branch 'obtain' without activation

of the local context elements yet.

* Proof method "cases" allows to specify the rule as first entry of

chained facts. This is particularly useful with 'consider':

consider (a) A | (b) B | (c) C <proof>

then have something

proof cases

case a

then show ?thesis <proof>

next

case b

then show ?thesis <proof>

next

case c

then show ?thesis <proof>

qed

* Command 'case' allows fact name and attribute specification like this:

case a: (c xs)

case a [attributes]: (c xs)

Facts that are introduced by invoking the case context are uniformly

qualified by "a"; the same name is used for the cumulative fact. The old

form "case (c xs) [attributes]" is no longer supported. Rare

INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt uses of case facts in exotic situations,

and always put attributes in front.

* The standard proof method of commands 'proof' and '..' is now called

"standard" to make semantically clear what it is; the old name "default"

is still available as legacy for some time. Documentation now explains

'..' more accurately as "by standard" instead of "by rule".

* Nesting of Isar goal structure has been clarified: the context after

the initial backwards refinement is retained for the whole proof, within

all its context sections (as indicated via 'next'). This is e.g.

relevant for 'using', 'including', 'supply':

have "A ∧ A" if a: A for A

supply [simp] = a

proof

show A by simp

next

show A by simp

qed

* Command 'obtain' binds term abbreviations (via 'is' patterns) in the

proof body as well, abstracted over relevant parameters.

* Improved type-inference for theorem statement 'obtains': separate

parameter scope for of each clause.

* Term abbreviations via 'is' patterns also work for schematic

statements: result is abstracted over unknowns.

* Command 'subgoal' allows to impose some structure on backward

refinements, to avoid proof scripts degenerating into long of 'apply'

sequences. Further explanations and examples are given in the isar-ref

manual.

* Command 'supply' supports fact definitions during goal refinement

('apply' scripts).

* Proof method "goal_cases" turns the current subgoals into cases within

the context; the conclusion is bound to variable ?case in each case. For

example:

lemma "⋀x. A x ⟹ B x ⟹ C x"

and "⋀y z. U y ⟹ V z ⟹ W y z"

proof goal_cases

case (1 x)

then show ?case using ‹A x› ‹B x› sorry

next

case (2 y z)

then show ?case using ‹U y› ‹V z› sorry

qed

lemma "⋀x. A x ⟹ B x ⟹ C x"

and "⋀y z. U y ⟹ V z ⟹ W y z"

proof goal_cases

case prems: 1

then show ?case using prems sorry

next

case prems: 2

then show ?case using prems sorry

qed

* The undocumented feature of implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc.

is marked as legacy, and will be removed eventually. The proof method

"goals" achieves a similar effect within regular Isar; often it can be

done more adequately by other means (e.g. 'consider').

* The vacuous fact "TERM x" may be established "by fact" or as `TERM x`

as well, not just "by this" or "." as before.

* Method "sleep" succeeds after a real-time delay (in seconds). This is

occasionally useful for demonstration and testing purposes.

*** Pure ***

* Qualifiers in locale expressions default to mandatory ('!') regardless

of the command. Previously, for 'locale' and 'sublocale' the default was

optional ('?'). The old synatx '!' has been discontinued.

INCOMPATIBILITY, remove '!' and add '?' as required.

* Keyword 'rewrites' identifies rewrite morphisms in interpretation

commands. Previously, the keyword was 'where'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* More gentle suppression of syntax along locale morphisms while

printing terms. Previously 'abbreviation' and 'notation' declarations

would be suppressed for morphisms except term identity. Now

'abbreviation' is also kept for morphims that only change the involved

parameters, and only 'notation' is suppressed. This can be of great help

when working with complex locale hierarchies, because proof states are

displayed much more succinctly. It also means that only notation needs

to be redeclared if desired, as illustrated by this example:

locale struct = fixes composition :: "'a => 'a => 'a" (infixl "⋅" 65)

begin

definition derived (infixl "⊙" 65) where ...

end

locale morphism =

left: struct composition + right: struct composition'

for composition (infix "⋅" 65) and composition' (infix "⋅''" 65)

begin

notation right.derived ("⊙''")

end

* Command 'global_interpretation' issues interpretations into global

theories, with optional rewrite definitions following keyword 'defines'.

* Command 'sublocale' accepts optional rewrite definitions after keyword

'defines'.

* Command 'permanent_interpretation' has been discontinued. Use

'global_interpretation' or 'sublocale' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Command 'print_definitions' prints dependencies of definitional

specifications. This functionality used to be part of 'print_theory'.

* Configuration option rule_insts_schematic has been discontinued

(intermediate legacy feature in Isabelle2015). INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Abbreviations in type classes now carry proper sort constraint. Rare

INCOMPATIBILITY in situations where the previous misbehaviour has been

exploited.

* Refinement of user-space type system in type classes: pseudo-local

operations behave more similar to abbreviations. Potential

INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.

*** HOL ***

* The 'typedef' command has been upgraded from a partially checked

"axiomatization", to a full definitional specification that takes the

global collection of overloaded constant / type definitions into

account. Type definitions with open dependencies on overloaded

definitions need to be specified as "typedef (overloaded)". This

provides extra robustness in theory construction. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Qualification of various formal entities in the libraries is done more

uniformly via "context begin qualified definition ... end" instead of

old-style "hide_const (open) ...". Consequently, both the defined

constant and its defining fact become qualified, e.g. Option.is_none and

Option.is_none_def. Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY in applications.

* Some old and rarely used ASCII replacement syntax has been removed.

INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax with symbols should be used instead.

The subsequent commands help to reproduce the old forms, e.g. to

simplify porting old theories:

notation iff (infixr "<->" 25)

notation Times (infixr "<*>" 80)

type_notation Map.map (infixr "~=>" 0)

notation Map.map_comp (infixl "o'_m" 55)

type_notation FinFun.finfun ("(_ =>f /_)" [22, 21] 21)

notation FuncSet.funcset (infixr "->" 60)

notation FuncSet.extensional_funcset (infixr "->_{E}" 60)

notation Omega_Words_Fun.conc (infixr "conc" 65)

notation Preorder.equiv ("op ~~")

and Preorder.equiv ("(_/ ~~ _)" [51, 51] 50)

notation (in topological_space) tendsto (infixr "--->" 55)

notation (in topological_space) LIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----> (_))" [60, 60] 60)

notation LIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)

notation NSA.approx (infixl "@=" 50)

notation NSLIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----NS> (_))" [60, 60] 60)

notation NSLIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --NS> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)

* The alternative notation "∷" for type and sort constraints has been

removed: in LaTeX document output it looks the same as "::".

INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain "::" instead.

* Commands 'inductive' and 'inductive_set' work better when names for

intro rules are omitted: the "cases" and "induct" rules no longer

declare empty case_names, but no case_names at all. This allows to use

numbered cases in proofs, without requiring method "goal_cases".

* Inductive definitions ('inductive', 'coinductive', etc.) expose

low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option

"inductive_internals" is enabled. This refers to the internal predicate

definition and its monotonicity result. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Recursive function definitions ('fun', 'function', 'partial_function')

expose low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option

"function_internals" is enabled. Its internal inductive definition is

also subject to "inductive_internals". Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.

* BNF datatypes ('datatype', 'codatatype', etc.) expose low-level facts

of the internal construction only if the option "bnf_internals" is

enabled. This supersedes the former option "bnf_note_all". Rare

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Combinator to represent case distinction on products is named

"case_prod", uniformly, discontinuing any input aliasses. Very popular

theorem aliasses have been retained.

Consolidated facts:

PairE ~> prod.exhaust

Pair_eq ~> prod.inject

pair_collapse ~> prod.collapse

Pair_fst_snd_eq ~> prod_eq_iff

split_twice ~> prod.case_distrib

split_weak_cong ~> prod.case_cong_weak

split_split ~> prod.split

split_split_asm ~> prod.split_asm

splitI ~> case_prodI

splitD ~> case_prodD

splitI2 ~> case_prodI2

splitI2' ~> case_prodI2'

splitE ~> case_prodE

splitE' ~> case_prodE'

split_pair ~> case_prod_Pair

split_eta ~> case_prod_eta

split_comp ~> case_prod_comp

mem_splitI ~> mem_case_prodI

mem_splitI2 ~> mem_case_prodI2

mem_splitE ~> mem_case_prodE

The_split ~> The_case_prod

cond_split_eta ~> cond_case_prod_eta

Collect_split_in_rel_leE ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leE

Collect_split_in_rel_leI ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leI

in_rel_Collect_split_eq ~> in_rel_Collect_case_prod_eq

Collect_split_Grp_eqD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_eqD

Collect_split_Grp_inD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_in

Domain_Collect_split ~> Domain_Collect_case_prod

Image_Collect_split ~> Image_Collect_case_prod

Range_Collect_split ~> Range_Collect_case_prod

Eps_split ~> Eps_case_prod

Eps_split_eq ~> Eps_case_prod_eq

split_rsp ~> case_prod_rsp

curry_split ~> curry_case_prod

split_curry ~> case_prod_curry

Changes in structure HOLogic:

split_const ~> case_prod_const

mk_split ~> mk_case_prod

mk_psplits ~> mk_ptupleabs

strip_psplits ~> strip_ptupleabs

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* The coercions to type 'real' have been reorganised. The function

'real' is no longer overloaded, but has type 'nat => real' and

abbreviates of_nat for that type. Also 'real_of_int :: int => real'

abbreviates of_int for that type. Other overloaded instances of 'real'

have been replaced by 'real_of_ereal' and 'real_of_float'.

Consolidated facts (among others):

real_of_nat_le_iff -> of_nat_le_iff

real_of_nat_numeral of_nat_numeral

real_of_int_zero of_int_0

real_of_nat_zero of_nat_0

real_of_one of_int_1

real_of_int_add of_int_add

real_of_nat_add of_nat_add

real_of_int_diff of_int_diff

real_of_nat_diff of_nat_diff

floor_subtract floor_diff_of_int

real_of_int_inject of_int_eq_iff

real_of_int_gt_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_less_iff

real_of_int_ge_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_le_iff

real_of_nat_ge_zero of_nat_0_le_iff

real_of_int_ceiling_ge le_of_int_ceiling

ceiling_less_eq ceiling_less_iff

ceiling_le_eq ceiling_le_iff

less_floor_eq less_floor_iff

floor_less_eq floor_less_iff

floor_divide_eq_div floor_divide_of_int_eq

real_of_int_zero_cancel of_nat_eq_0_iff

ceiling_real_of_int ceiling_of_int

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Theory Map: lemma map_of_is_SomeD was a clone of map_of_SomeD and has

been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Quickcheck setup for finite sets.

* Discontinued simp_legacy_precond. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Sledgehammer:

- The MaSh relevance filter has been sped up.

- Proof reconstruction has been improved, to minimize the incidence of

cases where Sledgehammer gives a proof that does not work.

- Auto Sledgehammer now minimizes and preplays the results.

- Handle Vampire 4.0 proof output without raising exception.

- Eliminated "MASH" environment variable. Use the "MaSh" option in

Isabelle/jEdit instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

- Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option and related subcommands.

* Nitpick:

- Fixed soundness bug in translation of "finite" predicate.

- Fixed soundness bug in "destroy_constrs" optimization.

- Fixed soundness bug in translation of "rat" type.

- Removed "check_potential" and "check_genuine" options.

- Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option.

* (Co)datatype package:

- New commands "lift_bnf" and "copy_bnf" for lifting (copying) a BNF

structure on the raw type to an abstract type defined using typedef.

- Always generate "case_transfer" theorem.

- For mutual types, generate slightly stronger "rel_induct",

"rel_coinduct", and "coinduct" theorems. INCOMPATIBILITY.

- Allow discriminators and selectors with the same name as the type

being defined.

- Avoid various internal name clashes (e.g., 'datatype f = f').

* Transfer: new methods for interactive debugging of 'transfer' and

'transfer_prover': 'transfer_start', 'transfer_step', 'transfer_end',

'transfer_prover_start' and 'transfer_prover_end'.

* New diagnostic command print_record for displaying record definitions.

* Division on integers is bootstrapped directly from division on

naturals and uses generic numeral algorithm for computations. Slight

INCOMPATIBILITY, simproc numeral_divmod replaces and generalizes former

simprocs binary_int_div and binary_int_mod

* Tightened specification of class semiring_no_zero_divisors. Minor

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Class algebraic_semidom introduces common algebraic notions of

integral (semi)domains, particularly units. Although logically subsumed

by fields, is is not a super class of these in order not to burden

fields with notions that are trivial there.

* Class normalization_semidom specifies canonical representants for

equivalence classes of associated elements in an integral (semi)domain.

This formalizes associated elements as well.

* Abstract specification of gcd/lcm operations in classes semiring_gcd,

semiring_Gcd, semiring_Lcd. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: facts gcd_nat.commute

and gcd_int.commute are subsumed by gcd.commute, as well as

gcd_nat.assoc and gcd_int.assoc by gcd.assoc.

* Former constants Fields.divide (_ / _) and Divides.div (_ div _) are

logically unified to Rings.divide in syntactic type class Rings.divide,

with infix syntax (_ div _). Infix syntax (_ / _) for field division is

added later as abbreviation in class Fields.inverse. INCOMPATIBILITY,

instantiations must refer to Rings.divide rather than the former

separate constants, hence infix syntax (_ / _) is usually not available

during instantiation.

* New cancellation simprocs for boolean algebras to cancel complementary

terms for sup and inf. For example, "sup x (sup y (- x))" simplifies to

"top". INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Class uniform_space introduces uniform spaces btw topological spaces

and metric spaces. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: open_<type>_def needs to be

introduced in the form of an uniformity. Some constants are more general

now, it may be necessary to add type class constraints.

open_real_def ↝ open_dist

open_complex_def ↝ open_dist

* Library/Monad_Syntax: notation uses symbols ⤜ and ⪢. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Library/Multiset:

- Renamed multiset inclusion operators:

< ~> <#

> ~> >#

<= ~> <=#

>= ~> >=#

≤ ~> ≤#

≥ ~> ≥#

INCOMPATIBILITY.

- Added multiset inclusion operator syntax:

⊂#

⊆#

⊃#

⊇#

- "'a multiset" is no longer an instance of the "order",

"ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le", "ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_diff",

"semilattice_inf", and "semilattice_sup" type classes. The theorems

previously provided by these type classes (directly or indirectly)

are now available through the "subset_mset" interpretation

(e.g. add_mono ~> subset_mset.add_mono).

INCOMPATIBILITY.

- Renamed conversions:

multiset_of ~> mset

multiset_of_set ~> mset_set

set_of ~> set_mset

INCOMPATIBILITY

- Renamed lemmas:

mset_le_def ~> subseteq_mset_def

mset_less_def ~> subset_mset_def

less_eq_multiset.rep_eq ~> subseteq_mset_def

INCOMPATIBILITY

- Removed lemmas generated by lift_definition:

less_eq_multiset.abs_eq, less_eq_multiset.rsp,

less_eq_multiset.transfer, less_eq_multiset_def

INCOMPATIBILITY

* Library/Omega_Words_Fun: Infinite words modeled as functions nat ⇒ 'a.

* Library/Bourbaki_Witt_Fixpoint: Added formalisation of the

Bourbaki-Witt fixpoint theorem for increasing functions in

chain-complete partial orders.

* Library/Old_Recdef: discontinued obsolete 'defer_recdef' command.

Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'function' instead.

* Library/Periodic_Fun: a locale that provides convenient lemmas for

periodic functions.

* Library/Formal_Power_Series: proper definition of division (with

remainder) for formal power series; instances for Euclidean Ring and

GCD.

* HOL-Imperative_HOL: obsolete theory Legacy_Mrec has been removed.

* HOL-Statespace: command 'statespace' uses mandatory qualifier for

import of parent, as for general 'locale' expressions. INCOMPATIBILITY,

remove '!' and add '?' as required.

* HOL-Decision_Procs: The "approximation" method works with "powr"

(exponentiation on real numbers) again.

* HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: theory Cauchy_Integral_Thm with Contour

integrals (= complex path integrals), Cauchy's integral theorem, winding

numbers and Cauchy's integral formula, Liouville theorem, Fundamental

Theorem of Algebra. Ported from HOL Light.

* HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: topological concepts such as connected

components, homotopic paths and the inside or outside of a set.

* HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: radius of convergence of power series and

various summability tests; Harmonic numbers and the Euler–Mascheroni

constant; the Generalised Binomial Theorem; the complex and real

Gamma/log-Gamma/Digamma/ Polygamma functions and their most important

properties.

* HOL-Probability: The central limit theorem based on Levy's uniqueness

and continuity theorems, weak convergence, and characterisitc functions.

* HOL-Data_Structures: new and growing session of standard data

structures.

*** ML ***

* The following combinators for low-level profiling of the ML runtime

system are available:

profile_time (*CPU time*)

profile_time_thread (*CPU time on this thread*)

profile_allocations (*overall heap allocations*)

* Antiquotation @{undefined} or ❖ inlines (raise Match).

* Antiquotation @{method NAME} inlines the (checked) name of the given

Isar proof method.

* Pretty printing of Poly/ML compiler output in Isabelle has been

improved: proper treatment of break offsets and blocks with consistent

breaks.

* The auxiliary module Pure/display.ML has been eliminated. Its

elementary thm print operations are now in Pure/more_thm.ML and thus

called Thm.pretty_thm, Thm.string_of_thm etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Simproc programming interfaces have been simplified:

Simplifier.make_simproc and Simplifier.define_simproc supersede various

forms of Simplifier.mk_simproc, Simplifier.simproc_global etc. Note that

term patterns for the left-hand sides are specified with implicitly

fixed variables, like top-level theorem statements. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Instantiation rules have been re-organized as follows:

Thm.instantiate (*low-level instantiation with named arguments*)

Thm.instantiate' (*version with positional arguments*)

Drule.infer_instantiate (*instantiation with type inference*)

Drule.infer_instantiate' (*version with positional arguments*)

The LHS only requires variable specifications, instead of full terms.

Old cterm_instantiate is superseded by infer_instantiate.

INCOMPATIBILITY, need to re-adjust some ML names and types accordingly.

* Old tactic shorthands atac, rtac, etac, dtac, ftac have been

discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular assume_tac, resolve_tac etc.

instead (with proper context).

* Thm.instantiate (and derivatives) no longer require the LHS of the

instantiation to be certified: plain variables are given directly.

* Subgoal.SUBPROOF and Subgoal.FOCUS combinators use anonymous

quasi-bound variables (like the Simplifier), instead of accidentally

named local fixes. This has the potential to improve stability of proof

tools, but can also cause INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that don't observe

the proof context discipline.

* Isar proof methods are based on a slightly more general type

context_tactic, which allows to change the proof context dynamically

(e.g. to update cases) and indicate explicit Seq.Error results. Former

METHOD_CASES is superseded by CONTEXT_METHOD; further combinators are

provided in src/Pure/Isar/method.ML for convenience. INCOMPATIBILITY.

*** System ***

* Command-line tool "isabelle console" enables print mode "ASCII".

* Command-line tool "isabelle update_then" expands old Isar command

conflations:

hence ~> then have

thus ~> then show

This syntax is more orthogonal and improves readability and

maintainability of proofs.

* Global session timeout is multiplied by timeout_scale factor. This

allows to adjust large-scale tests (e.g. AFP) to overall hardware

performance.

* Property values in etc/symbols may contain spaces, if written with the

replacement character "␣" (Unicode point 0x2324). For example:

⋆ code: 0x0022c6 group: operator font: Deja␣Vu␣Sans␣Mono

* Java runtime environment for x86_64-windows allows to use larger heap

space.

* Java runtime options are determined separately for 32bit vs. 64bit

platforms as follows.

- Isabelle desktop application: platform-specific files that are

associated with the main app bundle

- isabelle jedit: settings

JEDIT_JAVA_SYSTEM_OPTIONS

JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS64

- isabelle build: settings

ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64

* Bash shell function "jvmpath" has been renamed to "platform_path": it

is relevant both for Poly/ML and JVM processes.

* Poly/ML default platform architecture may be changed from 32bit to

64bit via system option ML_system_64. A system restart (and rebuild) is

required after change.

* Poly/ML 5.6 runs natively on x86-windows and x86_64-windows, which

both allow larger heap space than former x86-cygwin.

* Heap images are 10-15% smaller due to less wasteful persistent theory

content (using ML type theory_id instead of theory);

New in Isabelle2015 (May 2015)

------------------------------

*** General ***

* Local theory specification commands may have a 'private' or

'qualified' modifier to restrict name space accesses to the local scope,

as provided by some "context begin ... end" block. For example:

context

begin

private definition ...

private lemma ...

qualified definition ...

qualified lemma ...

lemma ...

theorem ...

end

* Command 'experiment' opens an anonymous locale context with private

naming policy.

* Command 'notepad' requires proper nesting of begin/end and its proof

structure in the body: 'oops' is no longer supported here. Minor

INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'sorry' instead.

* Command 'named_theorems' declares a dynamic fact within the context,

together with an attribute to maintain the content incrementally. This

supersedes functor Named_Thms in Isabelle/ML, but with a subtle change

of semantics due to external visual order vs. internal reverse order.

* 'find_theorems': search patterns which are abstractions are

schematically expanded before search. Search results match the naive

expectation more closely, particularly wrt. abbreviations.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Commands 'method_setup' and 'attribute_setup' now work within a local

theory context.

* Outer syntax commands are managed authentically within the theory

context, without implicit global state. Potential for accidental

INCOMPATIBILITY, make sure that required theories are really imported.

* Historical command-line terminator ";" is no longer accepted (and

already used differently in Isar). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle

update_semicolons" to remove obsolete semicolons from old theory

sources.

* Structural composition of proof methods (meth1; meth2) in Isar

corresponds to (tac1 THEN_ALL_NEW tac2) in ML.

* The Eisbach proof method language allows to define new proof methods

by combining existing ones with their usual syntax. The "match" proof

method provides basic fact/term matching in addition to

premise/conclusion matching through Subgoal.focus, and binds fact names

from matches as well as term patterns within matches. The Isabelle

documentation provides an entry "eisbach" for the Eisbach User Manual.

Sources and various examples are in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/.

*** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***

* Improved folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax. Alternatively,

the "sidekick" mode may be used for document structure.

* Extended bracket matching based on Isar language structure. System

option jedit_structure_limit determines maximum number of lines to scan

in the buffer.

* Support for BibTeX files: context menu, context-sensitive token

marker, SideKick parser.

* Document antiquotation @{cite} provides formal markup, which is

interpreted semi-formally based on .bib files that happen to be open in

the editor (hyperlinks, completion etc.).

* Less waste of vertical space via negative line spacing (see Global

Options / Text Area).

* Improved graphview panel with optional output of PNG or PDF, for

display of 'thy_deps', 'class_deps' etc.

* The commands 'thy_deps' and 'class_deps' allow optional bounds to

restrict the visualized hierarchy.

* Improved scheduling for asynchronous print commands (e.g. provers

managed by the Sledgehammer panel) wrt. ongoing document processing.

*** Document preparation ***

* Document markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection',

'subsubsection', 'text', 'txt', 'text_raw' work uniformly in any

context, even before the initial 'theory' command. Obsolete proof

commands 'sect', 'subsect', 'subsubsect', 'txt_raw' have been

discontinued, use 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection', 'text_raw'

instead. The old 'header' command is still retained for some time, but

should be replaced by 'chapter', 'section' etc. (using "isabelle

update_header"). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Official support for "tt" style variants, via \isatt{...} or

\begin{isabellett}...\end{isabellett}. The somewhat fragile \verb or

verbatim environment of LaTeX is no longer used. This allows @{ML} etc.

as argument to other macros (such as footnotes).

* Document antiquotation @{verbatim} prints ASCII text literally in "tt"

style.

* Discontinued obsolete option "document_graph": session_graph.pdf is

produced unconditionally for HTML browser_info and PDF-LaTeX document.

* Diagnostic commands and document markup commands within a proof do not

affect the command tag for output. Thus commands like 'thm' are subject

to proof document structure, and no longer "stick out" accidentally.

Commands 'text' and 'txt' merely differ in the LaTeX style, not their

tags. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.

* System option "pretty_margin" is superseded by "thy_output_margin",

which is also accessible via document antiquotation option "margin".

Only the margin for document output may be changed, but not the global

pretty printing: that is 76 for plain console output, and adapted

dynamically in GUI front-ends. Implementations of document

antiquotations need to observe the margin explicitly according to

Thy_Output.string_of_margin. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Specification of 'document_files' in the session ROOT file is

mandatory for document preparation. The legacy mode with implicit

copying of the document/ directory is no longer supported. Minor

INCOMPATIBILITY.

*** Pure ***

* Proof methods with explicit instantiation ("rule_tac", "subgoal_tac"

etc.) allow an optional context of local variables ('for' declaration):

these variables become schematic in the instantiated theorem; this

behaviour is analogous to 'for' in attributes "where" and "of".

Configuration option rule_insts_schematic (default false) controls use

of schematic variables outside the context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY,

declare rule_insts_schematic = true temporarily and update to use local

variable declarations or dummy patterns instead.

* Explicit instantiation via attributes "where", "of", and proof methods

"rule_tac" with derivatives like "subgoal_tac" etc. admit dummy patterns

("_") that stand for anonymous local variables.

* Generated schematic variables in standard format of exported facts are

incremented to avoid material in the proof context. Rare

INCOMPATIBILITY, explicit instantiation sometimes needs to refer to

different index.

* Lexical separation of signed and unsigned numerals: categories "num"

and "float" are unsigned. INCOMPATIBILITY: subtle change in precedence

of numeral signs, particularly in expressions involving infix syntax

like "(- 1) ^ n".

* Old inner token category "xnum" has been discontinued. Potential

INCOMPATIBILITY for exotic syntax: may use mixfix grammar with "num"

token category instead.

*** HOL ***

* New (co)datatype package:

- The 'datatype_new' command has been renamed 'datatype'. The old

command of that name is now called 'old_datatype' and is provided

by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See

'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

- Renamed theorems:

disc_corec ~> corec_disc

disc_corec_iff ~> corec_disc_iff

disc_exclude ~> distinct_disc

disc_exhaust ~> exhaust_disc

disc_map_iff ~> map_disc_iff

sel_corec ~> corec_sel

sel_exhaust ~> exhaust_sel

sel_map ~> map_sel

sel_set ~> set_sel

sel_split ~> split_sel

sel_split_asm ~> split_sel_asm

strong_coinduct ~> coinduct_strong

weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak

INCOMPATIBILITY.

- The "no_code" option to "free_constructors", "datatype_new", and

"codatatype" has been renamed "plugins del: code".

INCOMPATIBILITY.

- The rules "set_empty" have been removed. They are easy

consequences of other set rules "by auto".

INCOMPATIBILITY.

- The rule "set_cases" is now registered with the "[cases set]"

attribute. This can influence the behavior of the "cases" proof

method when more than one case rule is applicable (e.g., an

assumption is of the form "w : set ws" and the method "cases w"

is invoked). The solution is to specify the case rule explicitly

(e.g. "cases w rule: widget.exhaust").

INCOMPATIBILITY.

- Renamed theories:

BNF_Comp ~> BNF_Composition

BNF_FP_Base ~> BNF_Fixpoint_Base

BNF_GFP ~> BNF_Greatest_Fixpoint

BNF_LFP ~> BNF_Least_Fixpoint

BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> BNF_Wellorder_Constructions

Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> Cardinals/Wellorder_Constructions

INCOMPATIBILITY.

- Lifting and Transfer setup for basic HOL types sum and prod (also

option) is now performed by the BNF package. Theories Lifting_Sum,

Lifting_Product and Lifting_Option from Main became obsolete and

were removed. Changed definitions of the relators rel_prod and

rel_sum (using inductive).

INCOMPATIBILITY: use rel_prod.simps and rel_sum.simps instead

of rel_prod_def and rel_sum_def.

Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: (rarely used by name) transfer theorem names

changed (e.g. map_prod_transfer ~> prod.map_transfer).

- Parametricity theorems for map functions, relators, set functions,

constructors, case combinators, discriminators, selectors and

(co)recursors are automatically proved and registered as transfer

rules.

* Old datatype package:

- The old 'datatype' command has been renamed 'old_datatype', and

'rep_datatype' has been renamed 'old_rep_datatype'. They are

provided by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See

'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

- Renamed theorems:

weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak

INCOMPATIBILITY.

- Renamed theory:

~~/src/HOL/Datatype.thy ~> ~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Nitpick:

- Fixed soundness bug related to the strict and non-strict subset

operations.

* Sledgehammer:

- CVC4 is now included with Isabelle instead of CVC3 and run by

default.

- Z3 is now always enabled by default, now that it is fully open

source. The "z3_non_commercial" option is discontinued.

- Minimization is now always enabled by default.

Removed sub-command:

min

- Proof reconstruction, both one-liners and Isar, has been

dramatically improved.

- Improved support for CVC4 and veriT.

* Old and new SMT modules:

- The old 'smt' method has been renamed 'old_smt' and moved to

'src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy'. It is provided for compatibility,

until applications have been ported to use the new 'smt' method. For

the method to work, an older version of Z3 (e.g. Z3 3.2 or 4.0) must

be installed, and the environment variable "OLD_Z3_SOLVER" must

point to it.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

- The 'smt2' method has been renamed 'smt'.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

- New option 'smt_reconstruction_step_timeout' to limit the

reconstruction time of Z3 proof steps in the new 'smt' method.

- New option 'smt_statistics' to display statistics of the new 'smt'

method, especially runtime statistics of Z3 proof reconstruction.

* Lifting: command 'lift_definition' allows to execute lifted constants

that have as a return type a datatype containing a subtype. This

overcomes long-time limitations in the area of code generation and

lifting, and avoids tedious workarounds.

* Command and antiquotation "value" provide different evaluation slots

(again), where the previous strategy (NBE after ML) serves as default.

Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Add NO_MATCH-simproc, allows to check for syntactic non-equality.

* field_simps: Use NO_MATCH-simproc for distribution rules, to avoid

non-termination in case of distributing a division. With this change

field_simps is in some cases slightly less powerful, if it fails try to

add algebra_simps, or use divide_simps. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Separate class no_zero_divisors has been given up in favour of fully

algebraic semiring_no_zero_divisors. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Class linordered_semidom really requires no zero divisors.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Classes division_ring, field and linordered_field always demand

"inverse 0 = 0". Given up separate classes division_ring_inverse_zero,

field_inverse_zero and linordered_field_inverse_zero. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Classes cancel_ab_semigroup_add / cancel_monoid_add specify explicit

additive inverse operation. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Complex powers and square roots. The functions "ln" and "powr" are now

overloaded for types real and complex, and 0 powr y = 0 by definition.

INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be necessary.

* The functions "sin" and "cos" are now defined for any type of sort

"{real_normed_algebra_1,banach}" type, so in particular on "real" and

"complex" uniformly. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be

needed.

* New library of properties of the complex transcendental functions sin,

cos, tan, exp, Ln, Arctan, Arcsin, Arccos. Ported from HOL Light.

* The factorial function, "fact", now has type "nat => 'a" (of a sort

that admits numeric types including nat, int, real and complex.

INCOMPATIBILITY: an expression such as "fact 3 = 6" may require a type

constraint, and the combination "real (fact k)" is likely to be

unsatisfactory. If a type conversion is still necessary, then use

"of_nat (fact k)" or "real_of_nat (fact k)".

* Removed functions "natfloor" and "natceiling", use "nat o floor" and

"nat o ceiling" instead. A few of the lemmas have been retained and

adapted: in their names "natfloor"/"natceiling" has been replaced by

"nat_floor"/"nat_ceiling".

* Qualified some duplicated fact names required for boostrapping the

type class hierarchy:

ab_add_uminus_conv_diff ~> diff_conv_add_uminus

field_inverse_zero ~> inverse_zero

field_divide_inverse ~> divide_inverse

field_inverse ~> left_inverse

Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Eliminated fact duplicates:

mult_less_imp_less_right ~> mult_right_less_imp_less

mult_less_imp_less_left ~> mult_left_less_imp_less

Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Fact consolidation: even_less_0_iff is subsumed by

double_add_less_zero_iff_single_add_less_zero (simp by default anyway).

* Generalized and consolidated some theorems concerning divsibility:

dvd_reduce ~> dvd_add_triv_right_iff

dvd_plus_eq_right ~> dvd_add_right_iff

dvd_plus_eq_left ~> dvd_add_left_iff

Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

* "even" and "odd" are mere abbreviations for "2 dvd _" and "~ 2 dvd _"

and part of theory Main.

even_def ~> even_iff_mod_2_eq_zero

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Lemma name consolidation: divide_Numeral1 ~> divide_numeral_1. Minor

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Bootstrap of listsum as special case of abstract product over lists.

Fact rename:

listsum_def ~> listsum.eq_foldr

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Product over lists via constant "listprod".

* Theory List: renamed drop_Suc_conv_tl and nth_drop' to

Cons_nth_drop_Suc.

* New infrastructure for compiling, running, evaluating and testing

generated code in target languages in HOL/Library/Code_Test. See

HOL/Codegenerator_Test/Code_Test* for examples.

* Library/Multiset:

- Introduced "replicate_mset" operation.

- Introduced alternative characterizations of the multiset ordering in

"Library/Multiset_Order".

- Renamed multiset ordering:

<# ~> #<#

<=# ~> #<=#

⊂# ~> #⊂#

⊆# ~> #⊆#

INCOMPATIBILITY.

- Introduced abbreviations for ill-named multiset operations:

<#, ⊂# abbreviate < (strict subset)

<=#, ≤#, ⊆# abbreviate <= (subset or equal)

INCOMPATIBILITY.

- Renamed

in_multiset_of ~> in_multiset_in_set

Multiset.fold ~> fold_mset

Multiset.filter ~> filter_mset

INCOMPATIBILITY.

- Removed mcard, is equal to size.

- Added attributes:

image_mset.id [simp]

image_mset_id [simp]

elem_multiset_of_set [simp, intro]

comp_fun_commute_plus_mset [simp]

comp_fun_commute.fold_mset_insert [OF comp_fun_commute_plus_mset, simp]

in_mset_fold_plus_iff [iff]

set_of_Union_mset [simp]

in_Union_mset_iff [iff]

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Library/Sum_of_Squares: simplified and improved "sos" method. Always

use local CSDP executable, which is much faster than the NEOS server.

The "sos_cert" functionality is invoked as "sos" with additional

argument. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

* HOL-Decision_Procs: New counterexample generator quickcheck

[approximation] for inequalities of transcendental functions. Uses

hardware floating point arithmetic to randomly discover potential

counterexamples. Counterexamples are certified with the "approximation"

method. See HOL/Decision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Quickcheck_Ex.thy for

examples.

* HOL-Probability: Reworked measurability prover

- applies destructor rules repeatedly

- removed application splitting (replaced by destructor rule)

- added congruence rules to rewrite measure spaces under the sets

projection

* New proof method "rewrite" (in theory ~~/src/HOL/Library/Rewrite) for

single-step rewriting with subterm selection based on patterns.

*** ML ***

* Subtle change of name space policy: undeclared entries are now

considered inaccessible, instead of accessible via the fully-qualified

internal name. This mainly affects Name_Space.intern (and derivatives),

which may produce an unexpected Long_Name.hidden prefix. Note that

contemporary applications use the strict Name_Space.check (and

derivatives) instead, which is not affected by the change. Potential

INCOMPATIBILITY in rare applications of Name_Space.intern.

* Subtle change of error semantics of Toplevel.proof_of: regular user

ERROR instead of internal Toplevel.UNDEF.

* Basic combinators map, fold, fold_map, split_list, apply are available

as parameterized antiquotations, e.g. @{map 4} for lists of quadruples.

* Renamed "pairself" to "apply2", in accordance to @{apply 2}.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Former combinators NAMED_CRITICAL and CRITICAL for central critical

sections have been discontinued, in favour of the more elementary

Multithreading.synchronized and its high-level derivative

Synchronized.var (which is usually sufficient in applications). Subtle

INCOMPATIBILITY: synchronized access needs to be atomic and cannot be

nested.

* Synchronized.value (ML) is actually synchronized (as in Scala): subtle

change of semantics with minimal potential for INCOMPATIBILITY.

* The main operations to certify logical entities are Thm.ctyp_of and

Thm.cterm_of with a local context; old-style global theory variants are

available as Thm.global_ctyp_of and Thm.global_cterm_of.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Elementary operations in module Thm are no longer pervasive.

INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified Thm.prop_of, Thm.cterm_of,

Thm.term_of etc.

* Proper context for various elementary tactics: assume_tac,

resolve_tac, eresolve_tac, dresolve_tac, forward_tac, match_tac,

compose_tac, Splitter.split_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Tactical PARALLEL_ALLGOALS is the most common way to refer to

PARALLEL_GOALS.

* Goal.prove_multi is superseded by the fully general Goal.prove_common,

which also allows to specify a fork priority.

* Antiquotation @{command_spec "COMMAND"} is superseded by

@{command_keyword COMMAND} (usually without quotes and with PIDE

markup). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Cartouches within ML sources are turned into values of type

Input.source (with formal position information).

*** System ***

* The Isabelle tool "update_cartouches" changes theory files to use

cartouches instead of old-style {* verbatim *} or `alt_string` tokens.

* The Isabelle tool "build" provides new options -X, -k, -x.

* Discontinued old-fashioned "codegen" tool. Code generation can always

be externally triggered using an appropriate ROOT file plus a

corresponding theory. Parametrization is possible using environment

variables, or ML snippets in the most extreme cases. Minor

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* JVM system property "isabelle.threads" determines size of Scala thread

pool, like Isabelle system option "threads" for ML.

* JVM system property "isabelle.laf" determines the default Swing

look-and-feel, via internal class name or symbolic name as in the jEdit

menu Global Options / Appearance.

* Support for Proof General and Isar TTY loop has been discontinued.

Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use standard PIDE infrastructure instead.

New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)

---------------------------------

*** General ***

* Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.

Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.

Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial

environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of

Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML. Commands 'SML_import'

and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two

separate environments. See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for

some examples.

* Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and

"safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free

variable. Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"

continue to be useful. The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the

configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)

restore the previous behavior. INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where

induction is done after these methods or when the names of free and

bound variables clash. As first approximation, old proofs may be

repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin = true]]" in the critical spot.

* More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to

form a closure over the concrete syntax. Method arguments should be

processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before

operating on the goal state. In any case, the standard discipline for

subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal

number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an

exception. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical

proof tools.

* Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with

arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc. The Prover IDE

supports input via ` (backquote).

* The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document

markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow

cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.

* Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses ⏎ instead

of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within

string token. General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.

Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for

Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1. The prover process no longer accepts

old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>. Potential

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,

which results in an active hyperlink within the text.

* Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does

not check existence within the file-system.

* Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,

isar-ref, jedit, system.

*** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***

* Improved Document panel: simplified interaction where every single

mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit

buffer.

* Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection

to PIDE hyperlinks.

* Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.

Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.

* Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for

auxiliary ML files.

* Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple

templates, completion language context, name-space completion,

file-name completion, spell-checker completion.

* Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event

handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing

keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.

* Completion popup supports both ENTER and TAB (default) to select an

item, depending on Isabelle options.

* Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple

selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall

caret".

* Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with

completion popup and context-menu.

* More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access

to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print

operations for the context. Minor incompatibility in keyboard

shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.

* Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)

to highlight text via regular expression.

* Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /

General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover

process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of

"isabelle jedit -m MODE".

* More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java

networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.

* Empty editors buffers that are no longer required (e.g.\ via theory

imports) are automatically removed from the document model.

* Improved monitor panel.

* Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,

more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.

* Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus

and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to

"Detach" a copy where this makes sense.

* New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the

simplification process, enabled by the "simp_trace_new" attribute

within the context.

*** Pure ***

* Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have

been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization

that is not immediately visible. INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular

'instance' command with proof. The required OFCLASS(...) theorem

might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof

finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous

(without any assumptions). See also Isabelle/ML operations

Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,

Axclass.arity_axiomatization.

* Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always

qualified. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious

consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML. The following

renaming needs to be applied:

== ~> Pure.eq

==> ~> Pure.imp

all ~> Pure.all

TYPE ~> Pure.type

dummy_pattern ~> Pure.dummy_pattern

Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a

*previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the

old constants:

setup {*

fn thy => thy

|> Sign.root_path

|> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="

|> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"

|> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"

|> Sign.restore_naming thy

*}

Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.

Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and

the auxiliary aliases are deleted.

* Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local

variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the

instantiated theorem.

* Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since

Isabelle2012). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context

where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for

declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of"). The

following temporary definition may help to port old applications:

attribute_setup standard =

"Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"

* More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and

attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared

hyps). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard

context discipline. See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more

primitive Thm.assume_hyps.

* Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."

(only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited

differently, e.g. via cartouches).

* Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,

but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.

* Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a

per-constant basis. See attribute "code_preproc".

*** HOL ***

* Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target

language requirements. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default. Minor

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"

option. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

* "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated

with the given constants.

* Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate

operations on records.

* Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and

ML. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Renamed command 'enriched_type' to 'functor'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* The symbol "⏎" may be used within char or string literals

to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.

* Qualified String.implode and String.explode. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can

now deal with conjunctions. For help with converting proofs, the old

behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using

[[simp_legacy_precond]]. This configuration option will disappear

again in the future. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to

spurious crashes and other surprises. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session

"HOL-BNF" to "HOL". The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',

'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now

part of theory "Main".

Theory renamings:

FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)

Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy

Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy

Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy

Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy

Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy

Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy

Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy

Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy

Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy

BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy

BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy

BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy

BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy

BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy

BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy

BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy

BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy

BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy

BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy

BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy

BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*

New theories:

Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)

Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy

Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy

BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy

BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy

Discontinued theories:

BNF/BNF.thy

BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* New (co)datatype package:

- Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.

- Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and

"size") as required by 'fun'.

- BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style

(co)datatypes with Transfer.

- Renamed commands:

datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat

primrec_new ~> primrec

wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors

INCOMPATIBILITY.

- The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed

"case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").

INCOMPATIBILITY.

- The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer

generated. Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually

using "prim(co)rec".

INCOMPATIBILITY.

- No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by

default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

- No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by

"datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new

"discs_sels" option is passed.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Old datatype package:

- The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been

renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->

"sum.case"). INCOMPATIBILITY.

- The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have

been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,

"prod_case" ~> "case_prod"). INCOMPATIBILITY.

* The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,

their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new

BNF-based datatype package.

Renamed constants:

Option.set ~> set_option

Option.map ~> map_option

option_rel ~> rel_option

Renamed theorems:

set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]

map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]

Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")

option.recs ~> option.rec

list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff

set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")

map.simps ~> list.map

hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)

tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)

the.simps ~> option.sel

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* The following map functions and relators have been renamed:

sum_map ~> map_sum

map_pair ~> map_prod

prod_rel ~> rel_prod

sum_rel ~> rel_sum

fun_rel ~> rel_fun

set_rel ~> rel_set

filter_rel ~> rel_filter

fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")

cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")

vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Lifting and Transfer:

- a type variable as a raw type is supported

- stronger reflexivity prover

- rep_eq is always generated by lift_definition

- setup for Lifting/Transfer is now automated for BNFs

+ holds for BNFs that do not contain a dead variable

+ relator_eq, relator_mono, relator_distr, relator_domain,

relator_eq_onp, quot_map, transfer rules for bi_unique, bi_total,

right_unique, right_total, left_unique, left_total are proved

automatically

+ definition of a predicator is generated automatically

+ simplification rules for a predicator definition are proved

automatically for datatypes

- consolidation of the setup of Lifting/Transfer

+ property that a relator preservers reflexivity is not needed any

more

Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

+ left_total and left_unique rules are now transfer rules

(reflexivity_rule attribute not needed anymore)

INCOMPATIBILITY.

+ Domainp does not have to be a separate assumption in

relator_domain theorems (=> more natural statement)

INCOMPATIBILITY.

- registration of code equations is more robust

Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

- respectfulness proof obligation is preprocessed to a more readable

form

Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

- eq_onp is always unfolded in respectfulness proof obligation

Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

- unregister lifting setup for Code_Numeral.integer and

Code_Numeral.natural

Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

- Lifting.invariant -> eq_onp

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof

traces. This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and

"dpll". Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT

solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now

the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and

corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare

[[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

* SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called

"SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,

4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also

supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version

of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.

* Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option

(without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable

"Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL". The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu

Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.

* Sledgehammer:

- Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.

- MaSh overhaul:

. New SML-based learning algorithms eliminate the dependency on

Python and increase performance and reliability.

. MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the

traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable

MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin

Options / Isabelle / General to "none".

- New option:

smt_proofs

- Renamed options:

isar_compress ~> compress

isar_try0 ~> try0

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.

* Nitpick:

- Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could

take infinite values.

- Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as

"Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".

- Removed "std" option.

- Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to

"hide_types".

* Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis

(full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.

* Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:

- Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.

- Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and

SUP instead uniformly.

- More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf

or SUP and Sup.

- INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.

- Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.

- Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with

simplifier implication in premises. Generalize and replace former

INT_cong, SUP_cong

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.

* Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:

image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]

image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]

vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]

vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Theory reorganization: split of Big_Operators.thy into

Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy.

* Consolidated some facts about big group operators:

setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral

setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const

setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib

setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product

setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases

setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute

setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong

setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta

setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'

setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove

setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty

setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite

setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert

setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter

setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left

setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right

setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left

setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right

setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex

setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong

setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial

setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict

setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus

setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict

setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma

setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff

setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint

setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint

setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter

setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint

setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp

setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral

strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong

strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong

setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral

setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const

setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product

setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong

setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta

setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'

setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty

setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite

setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert

setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left

setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right

setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left

setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right

setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex

setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong

setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial

setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma

setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff

setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib

setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2

setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint

setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint

setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter

setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint

setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral

Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).

Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)

Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id

(simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.

Fact consolidations:

min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc

min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute

min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute

min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem

min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem

min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem

min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc

min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute

min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute

min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem

min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem

min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2

min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1

min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2

min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1

min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs

min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1

min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2

min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1

min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2

min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1

min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2

min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1

min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2

le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1

le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2

min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1

min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2

min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1

min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2

min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1

min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2

min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1

min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2

min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono

min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono

min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI

min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI

min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff

min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff

For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,

min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,

max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.

For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,

min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.

For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>

Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Fact generalization and consolidation:

neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Purely algebraic definition of even. Fact generalization and

consolidation:

nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd

even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Abolished neg_numeral.

- Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".

- Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".

- When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the

following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.

- HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms

like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".

- Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Reduced name variants for rules on associativity and commutativity:

add_assoc ~> add.assoc

add_commute ~> add.commute

add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute

mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc

mult_commute ~> mult.commute

mult_left_commute ~> mult.left_commute

nat_add_assoc ~> add.assoc

nat_add_commute ~> add.commute

nat_add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute

nat_mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc

nat_mult_commute ~> mult.commute

eq_assoc ~> iff_assoc

eq_left_commute ~> iff_left_commute

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Fact collections add_ac and mult_ac are considered old-fashioned.

Prefer ac_simps instead, or specify rules

(add|mult).(assoc|commute|left_commute) individually.

* Elimination of fact duplicates:

equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique

diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq

nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat

int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Fact name consolidation:

diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus

minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg

le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos

neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos

less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:

add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,

add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,

add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,

le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,

minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff. These correspondingly have

been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:

a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":

Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.

b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:

Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".

c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".

Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;

or the brute way with

"simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".

* Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory

Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly

stating boundedness of sets.

* ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more

syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as

additional case in fixpoint induction proofs. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Removed and renamed theorems in Series:

summable_le ~> suminf_le

suminf_le ~> suminf_le_const

series_pos_le ~> setsum_le_suminf

series_pos_less ~> setsum_less_suminf

suminf_ge_zero ~> suminf_nonneg

suminf_gt_zero ~> suminf_pos

suminf_gt_zero_iff ~> suminf_pos_iff

summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf ~> summable_LIMSEQ

suminf_0_le ~> suminf_nonneg [rotate]

pos_summable ~> summableI_nonneg_bounded

ratio_test ~> summable_ratio_test

removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite

removed auxiliary lemmas:

sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,

half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,

real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,

sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,

summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:

- "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"

- "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"

- "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax

- removed constant isDiff

- "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as

input syntax.

- "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.

- Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...

- renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV

- removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros

- introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which

includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and

has_vector_derivative.

- Other renamings:

differentiable_def ~> real_differentiable_def

differentiableE ~> real_differentiableE

fderiv_def ~> has_derivative_at

field_fderiv_def ~> field_has_derivative_at

isDiff_der ~> differentiable_def

deriv_fderiv ~> has_field_derivative_def

deriv_def ~> DERIV_def

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the

continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now

in continuous_intros.

* Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,

the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use

primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.

Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they

are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This

especially removes

i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".

Instead the reverse direction is supported with

Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + 𝗂 * b"

Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.

Renamings:

Re/Im ~> complex.sel

complex_Re/Im_zero ~> zero_complex.sel

complex_Re/Im_add ~> plus_complex.sel

complex_Re/Im_minus ~> uminus_complex.sel

complex_Re/Im_diff ~> minus_complex.sel

complex_Re/Im_one ~> one_complex.sel

complex_Re/Im_mult ~> times_complex.sel

complex_Re/Im_inverse ~> inverse_complex.sel

complex_Re/Im_scaleR ~> scaleR_complex.sel

complex_Re/Im_i ~> ii.sel

complex_Re/Im_cnj ~> cnj.sel

Re/Im_cis ~> cis.sel

complex_divide_def ~> divide_complex_def

complex_norm_def ~> norm_complex_def

cmod_def ~> norm_complex_de

Removed theorems:

complex_zero_def

complex_add_def

complex_minus_def

complex_diff_def

complex_one_def

complex_mult_def

complex_inverse_def

complex_scaleR_def

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by

Conditionally_Complete_Lattices. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* HOL-Library: new theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.

* HOL-Library: removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it

is subsumed by session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.

* HOL-Library / theory RBT: various constants and facts are hidden;

lifting setup is unregistered. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* HOL-Cardinals: new theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.

* HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* HOL-Word:

- Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate

of "word_arith_wis".

- Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections

"sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",

"uint_word_arith_bintrs".

* HOL-Number_Theory:

- consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem

- the function fib is again of type nat => nat and not overloaded

- no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries

(except the AFP)

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:

- Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.

- New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,

holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.

- Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with

pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of

conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.

INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or

explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open

intervals.

- removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with

introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space

- renamed theorems:

interval ~> box

mem_interval ~> mem_box

interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty

interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty

interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing

interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing

subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp

subset_interval ~> subset_box

open_interval ~> open_box

closed_interval ~> closed_cbox

interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox

bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox

compact_interval ~> compact_cbox

bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric

bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox

mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI

convex_box ~> convex_prod

rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box

convex_interval ~> convex_box

convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox

frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox

content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'

elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box

diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox

frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox

frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box

bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric

closure_open_interval ~> closure_box

open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex

open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint

content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox

is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval

bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes

- respective theorems for intervals over the reals:

content_closed_interval + content_cbox

has_integral + has_integral_real

fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real

has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real

tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real

has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real

integral_const + integral_const_real

has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real

integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real

integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real

has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real

integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real

integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real

image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox

image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox

integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl

integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox

- renamed theorems:

derivative_linear ~> has_derivative_bounded_linear

derivative_is_linear ~> has_derivative_linear

bounded_linear_imp_linear ~> bounded_linear.linear

* HOL-Probability:

- Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:

. Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"

positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg

. Renamed abbreviation integral^{P}to integral^{N}.

- replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general

Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.

integral_zero ~> integral_zero / integrable_zero

integral_minus ~> integral_minus / integrable_minus

integral_add ~> integral_add / integrable_add

integral_diff ~> integral_diff / integrable_diff

integral_setsum ~> integral_setsum / integrable_setsum

integral_multc ~> integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left

integral_cmult ~> integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right

integral_triangle_inequality~> integral_norm_bound

integrable_nonneg ~> integrableI_nonneg

integral_positive ~> integral_nonneg_AE

integrable_abs_iff ~> integrable_abs_cancel

positive_integral_lim_INF ~> nn_integral_liminf

lebesgue_real_affine ~> lborel_real_affine

borel_integral_has_integral ~> has_integral_lebesgue_integral

integral_indicator ~>

integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator

positive_integral_fst ~> nn_integral_fst'

positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> nn_integral_fst

positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> nn_integral_snd

integrable_fst_measurable ~>

integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst

integrable_snd_measurable ~>

integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd

integral_monotone_convergence ~>

integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence

integral_monotone_convergence_at_top ~>

integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /

integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top

has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue ~>

has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg

lebesgue_integral_has_integral ~>

has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg

positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral ~>

integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /

integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg

lebesgue_integral_real_affine ~>

nn_integral_real_affine

has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel ~>

integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg

The following theorems where removed:

lebesgue_integral_nonneg

lebesgue_integral_uminus

lebesgue_integral_cmult

lebesgue_integral_multc

lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg

integral_cmul_indicator

integral_real

- Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal

distributed random variables.

* HOL-Decision_Procs: Separate command 'approximate' for approximative

computation in src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation. Minor

INCOMPATIBILITY.

*** Scala ***

* The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /

select_markup have been clarified. Markup is now traversed in the

order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more

specific and may override results accumulated so far. The elements

guard is mandatory and checked precisely. Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication

channels. INCOMPATIBILITY.

*** ML ***

* Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not

compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the

current background theory. Thus equivalent data produced in different

branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for

theory merge). Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more

appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.

* Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,

rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to

pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity

actually belongs to it).

* Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:

variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as

fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.

This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'

declaration. INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices

of schematic variables.

* Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to

structure Runtime. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option

"ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context

via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing

depth of the ML compiler within the context. The old print_depth in

ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used. Minor

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,

without Isar context nor antiquotations. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the

formal context.

* Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see

structure ML_Antiquotation. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

* ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is

occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.

* ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to

Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and

some PIDE markup. Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a

well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path

specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".

* ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary

ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration

purposes.

*** System ***

* Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional

Isabelle component, e.g. see ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle

component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/. Note that

the "system" manual provides general explanations about add-on

components, especially those that are not bundled with the release.

* The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from

"isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common

shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within

the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup. Rare

incompatibility for old tools that do not use the ISABELLE_PROCESS

settings variable.

* Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",

with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly

obsolete Isar TTY loop.

* Simplified "isabelle display" tool. Settings variables DVI_VIEWER

and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell

command-lines. Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous

via desktop environment, without any special precautions. Potential

INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.

* Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize". Note that the usual format

for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,

as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.

* Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be

integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.

* Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and

repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file

$ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.

* Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for

robust dependencies on LaTeX sources. Only these explicitly given

files are copied to the document output directory, before document

processing is started.

* Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead

of TeX Live from Cygwin.

New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)

-------------------------------------

*** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***

* More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,

e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.

* More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query

after edits surrounding the command location.

* More status information about commands that are interrupted

accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,

e.g. out-of-memory).

*** System ***

* More robust termination of external processes managed by

Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of

milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically

tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).

* Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on

Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a

workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.

New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)

-------------------------------------

*** General ***

* Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header. Note that

commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file

dependencies. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by

'ML_file' in Isabelle2013. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain ⇩

instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>. Superscripts are

only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations

for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual

names. Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to^{2}in

Isabelle/HOL. INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to

standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.

The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary

workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier

syntax.

* Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to

"sub". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also

"isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also

Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar. Minor

INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access

quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.

* Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'. Minor

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'. Old 'pr' (with its

implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as

control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.

* Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output

and Unix command-line print spooling. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use

'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.

* Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,

eliminated old "ref" manual.

*** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***

* New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or

Documentation panel.

* Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle

documentation.

* Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities

(GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).

* Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel

sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of

normal editing and checking process.

* Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command

timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold. The

same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the

command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or

COMMAND modifier is pressed.

* Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof

document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,

using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER". Individual theory nodes may

be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box

or shortcut "C+e SPACE".

* Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the

Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick. Refined table of Isabelle

symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).

* Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to

isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.

INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts

to resolve conflict.

* Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,

options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.

* Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of

running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of

such command executions while editing.

* Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing

document content.

* Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove

toplevel theorem statements.

* Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size

according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see

also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General"). It can be bound to some

keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).

* File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to

$ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms. Discontinued

obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.

* Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities

/ Global Options / Appearance".

* Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"

plugin, which is now enabled by default.

*** Pure ***

* Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.

In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent

interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a

light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'. See "isar-ref" manual for

details.

* Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.

* Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as

legacy since Isabelle2009-2. INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'

instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.

* Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* System option "proofs" has been discontinued. Instead the global

state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images

as required, notably HOL-Proofs. Users no longer need to change

Proofterm.proofs dynamically. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend

on Proof.context. Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is

now the default. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as

configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).

* SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal

state (schematic variables etc.). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare

situations.

*** HOL ***

* Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on

sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.

* Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase

rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated

from the datatype package. The declaration attribute

"case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:

declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]

* Code generator:

- 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /

'code_instance'.

- 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in

generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.

See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for

examples.

* Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code

equations uniformly. Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'

to distinguish both when desired.

* Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more

fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,

Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral. See the tutorial on code

generation for details. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:

natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former

code_int). Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /

natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and

Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in

ML). INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate

cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable

f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,

in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.

* Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are

generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".

* New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for

function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to

inductive_cases. See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.

* Lifting:

- parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:

+ parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in

the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger

transfer rules

+ setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric

correspondence relation can be generated

+ various new properties of the relator must be specified to support

parametricity

+ parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified

- setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package

- stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type

copies

- ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced

by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an

anonymous context)

- Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in

Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY

- new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:

lifting_forget, lifting_update

- the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.

INCOMPATIBILITY

* Transfer:

- better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T

by the actual invariant in a transferred goal

- transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules

- Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the

abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute

- Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute

* Reification and reflection:

- Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure

"Reification".

- Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.

- The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:

- Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:

Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b

This is now identity on infinite sets.

- Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with

Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.

- Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and

semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.

See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.

Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and

semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image

and fold1 respectively. These are now gone. You may use

those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is

preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.

- Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,

no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)

- Fact renames:

card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]

card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.

* Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class

ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the

class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a

complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and

bottom elements. Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and

extended reals. Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation

of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about

conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from

Inf_... to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice

lemmas.

* Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of

conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have

more than one element. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top

and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions. INCOMPATIBILITY:

Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top

* Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without

top and bottom elements.

* Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.

* Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from

HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.

- Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and

linear_continuum_topology. Allows to generalize theorems about

limits and order. Instances are reals and extended reals.

- continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:

"continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter. "isCont"

is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".

Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an

arbitrary filter.

- compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove

compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions

attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a

continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous

on a compact set.

- connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the

intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on

linear_continuum_topology).

- first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to

show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and

on all sequences converging to x.

- FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved

theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the

definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV

which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from

left or right.

- Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:

F within X = inf F (principal X)

- Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an

abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"

- Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,

continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems

in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as

tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side

is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as

intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.

- Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:

+ Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real

+ Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about

topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it

+ Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces

+ Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,

Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits

+ Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental

+ Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces

- Remove various auxiliary lemmas.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Nitpick:

- Added option "spy".

- Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.

* Sledgehammer:

- Renamed option:

isar_shrink ~> isar_compress

INCOMPATIBILITY.

- Added options "isar_try0", "spy".

- Better support for "isar_proofs".

- MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.

* Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also

isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).

* Library/Polynomial.thy:

- Use lifting for primitive definitions.

- Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for

generated code.

- Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.

- Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.

- Fact renames:

poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff

poly_ext ~> poly_eqI

expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff

IMCOMPATIBILITY.

* New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and

case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of

equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case

expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.

* New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of

sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.

* Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Consolidation of library theories on product orders:

Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products

Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no

longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function

instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.

* HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and

~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly. Existing theories should be based on

~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead. The latter provides

integration with HOL's type classes for rings. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* HOL-BNF:

- Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including

new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and

"datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See

"datatypes.pdf" for details.

- New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to

coinduct).

- Renamed keywords:

data ~> datatype_new

codata ~> codatatype

bnf_def ~> bnf

- Renamed many generated theorems, including

discs ~> disc

map_comp' ~> map_comp

map_id' ~> map_id

sels ~> sel

set_map' ~> set_map

sets ~> set

IMCOMPATIBILITY.

*** ML ***

* Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML. The ML function

"check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y

z. prop x y z". See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its

Examples.thy in particular.

* Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular

tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical

stdout. See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and

ML_Compiler.exn_trace.

* ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of

drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in

the past). Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,

Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref. Minor

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:

Skip_Proof.prove ~> Goal.prove_sorry

Skip_Proof.prove_global ~> Goal.prove_sorry_global

Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of

historic type simpset. Old-style declarations like addsimps,

addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context. Raw type simpset

retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using

simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context. INCOMPATIBILITY -- port

old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of

(ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.

* Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)

operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,

addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage

clasets separately from the context.

* Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.

INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.

* Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but

presents the result as initial Proof.context.

*** System ***

* Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by

"isabelle build" in Isabelle2013. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former

administrative aliases of option -e). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND

settings variable.

* Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic

document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is

always pdf.

* Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to

specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.

* Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows

to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.

* Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral

keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer

syntax without requiring to build sessions first.

* Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT

file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info. The old

tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its

tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.

The default chapter is called "Unsorted". Potential INCOMPATIBILITY

for HTML presentation of theories.

New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)

-----------------------------------

*** General ***

* Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is

no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with

incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model. ML

function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the

ongoing evaluation process. Note that in batch mode --- notably

isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all

accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).

* Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup

into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type

and sort constraints. This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that

information via tooltips in the output window, for example.

* Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the

theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.

* Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the

theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.

Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the

'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of

dependencies properly.

* Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which

is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.

* Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced

remaining material in old "ref" manual.

* Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure

for specifications. Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."

and "class ... context ...".

* Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is

interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in

the target context. This form of declaration is stable when exported

from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions. It is the

preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced

in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.

* More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving

lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).

* Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according

to name patterns (with clickable results).

*** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***

* Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise

proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'. This

allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the

surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal

justifications. Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as

required to complete full proof checking eventually.

* Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the

same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers. Activation of

tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,

which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content

is explored. ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be

closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.

* Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text

message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph

browser on demand.

* More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,

malformed symbols). Changing the balance of open/close quotes and

comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations

that frequently occur in user interaction.

* More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large

files. More scalable management of formal document content.

* Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after

certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user

dialog to stop or continue. This avoids swamping the front-end with

potentially infinite message streams.

* More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala. The

jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala

options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color

schemes.

* Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle

symbols.

* Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics. Note that

continuous display of the chart slows down the system.

* Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,

bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text

selections. Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.

* Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size

adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,

tooltips etc. Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often

need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.

* More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of

\n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing. See

also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".

* Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session

image. For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on

demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the

Isabelle distribution.

* Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates

from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience. This version is

now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.

*** Pure ***

* Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from

Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.

* Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted

relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the

rather arbitrary current working directory. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP". Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,

use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof

structure instead. Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of

operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied

with some care where this is really required.

* Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort

constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a

given sort. Example (in HOL):

typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite

* Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as

a Hasse diagram.

*** HOL ***

* Sledgehammer:

- Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the

Sledgehammer manual for details.

- Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.

- Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).

- Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".

- Renamed options:

isar_proof ~> isar_proofs

isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink

max_relevant ~> max_facts

relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds

* Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises. It is

switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the

configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.

* Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Lifting:

- generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition

- quot_del attribute

- renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)

* Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree

expressions.

* Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into

pointfree expressions.

* The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly

supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear

arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction

failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions". Minor

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit

set definition and alternative name have been discontinued. The

former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but

written just "typedef t = A". INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories

accordingly.

* Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"

directly. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to

List. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded

subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.

* Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".

* Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas

reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp

rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)

left_distrib ~> distrib_right

right_distrib ~> distrib_left

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Generalized the definition of limits:

- Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which

expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the

output f x converges to G.

- Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative

infinity (at_bot).

- Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from

Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.

- Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>

at_top".

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to

lattice type classes.

* Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed

constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold

fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related

changes as follows.

- Renamed constants (and related lemmas)

prefix ~> prefixeq

strict_prefix ~> prefix

- Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument

order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped

old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.

Renamed lemmas accordingly.

- Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on

lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case

"list_hembeq (op =)".

- Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type

class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale

interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory

Library/Prefix_Order.

- The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based

on "Sublist.sublisteq". Renamed lemmas accordingly:

le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff

le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono

le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2

le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD

le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'

le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq

le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'

le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many

le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left

le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many

le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append

le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length

le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'

less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop

less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct

not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* New theory Library/Countable_Set.

* Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and

parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.

* Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and

introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced

extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from

extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:

extensional_empty ~> PiE_empty

extensional_funcset_empty_domain ~> PiE_empty_domain

extensional_funcset_empty_range ~> PiE_empty_range

extensional_funcset_arb ~> PiE_arb

extensional_funcset_mem ~> PiE_mem

extensional_funcset_extend_domainI ~> PiE_fun_upd

extensional_funcset_restrict_domain ~> fun_upd_in_PiE

extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq ~> PiE_insert_eq

card_extensional_funcset ~> card_PiE

finite_extensional_funcset ~> finite_PiE

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant

functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as

Data").

* Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type

parameter appear in a constant's type. This alternative to adding

TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated

code.

* Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees

from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may

return a structurally different tree than before. Potential

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.

* Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.

* HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced

"basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"

"\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"

on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ ∙ _" with

vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by

"SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".

With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:

DIM('a) :: nat ~> card (Basis :: 'a set) (is an abbreviation)

a $$ i ~> inner a i (where i : Basis)

cart_base i removed

π, π' removed

Theorems about these constants where removed.

Renamed lemmas:

component_le_norm ~> Basis_le_norm

euclidean_eq ~> euclidean_eq_iff

differential_zero_maxmin_component ~> differential_zero_maxmin_cart

euclidean_simps ~> inner_simps

independent_basis ~> independent_Basis

span_basis ~> span_Basis

in_span_basis ~> in_span_Basis

norm_bound_component_le ~> norm_boound_Basis_le

norm_bound_component_lt ~> norm_boound_Basis_lt

component_le_infnorm ~> Basis_le_infnorm

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* HOL/Probability:

- Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.

- Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union

(sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions

(borel_measurable_induct).

- Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a

projective family).

* HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the

AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").

* HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors

with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free

datatypes.

* HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations

expressed by Finite_Set.fold.

* New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black

trees for the code generator.

* HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to

Lifting/Transfer.

possible INCOMPATIBILITY.

* HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter

INCOMPATIBILITY.

*** Document preparation ***

* Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since

styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.

Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".

* Default LaTeX rendering for € is now based on eurosym package,

instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.

* Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point

document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common

document/root.tex.

* Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style

document/IsaMakefile. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

*** ML ***

* The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,

instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary

hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.

* Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error

messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide

informative errors in the absence of any usable results.

* Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a

formal device to inline positions into message text, but not

necessarily printing visible text.

*** System ***

* Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see

"system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle

build" tool and its examples. The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares

session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to

former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir". Note that this affects

document preparation as well. INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /

mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.

* Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the

regular isabelle build tool. For example:

isabelle build -s -b HOL

* Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".

* Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the

Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that

provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build". Note

that this is inefficient! Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving

"isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.

* The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as

required for "isabelle build", for example.

* The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.

Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.

* The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line. Minor

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components

that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository

version of Isabelle.

* Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general

platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".

* The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer

picked up from some surrounding directory. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY

for home-made settings.

* Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).

* Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version

without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel

configuration.

* Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess

PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout. Minor

INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS

settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been

bundled as Isabelle component.

New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)

------------------------------

*** General ***

* Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:

- more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer

command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)

- markup for bound variables

- markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)

- support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session

- improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range

e.g. glyph for 𝒜 (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)

* Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory

header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands. Allow new

commands to be used in the same theory where defined.

* Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with

additional parameters and assumptions. Such unnamed contexts may be

nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',

'instantiation' etc. Results from the local context are generalized

accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context. Example:

context

fixes x y z :: 'a

assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"

begin

lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp

end

thm my_trans

The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of

several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see

~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy

Any other local theory specification element works within the "context

... begin ... end" block as well.

* Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a

given name in the context. These may be later included in other

contexts. This allows to manage context extensions casually, without

the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation. See

commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.

* Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'

declaration, and results are standardized before being stored. Thus

old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts

becomes obsolete. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of

indices of schematic variables.

* Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)

are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead

of the original expression. INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where

the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations

etc. was exploited.

* New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"

("prog-prove"). It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to

Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed. It

also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order

Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all

of the material of that old tutorial.

* Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",

"implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"

manual.

*** Pure ***

* Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"

into the user context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular

"def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.

* Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into

"f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always

expand it. This also works for object-logic equality. (Formerly

undocumented feature.)

* Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just

like type constraints. INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where

distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally. For example:

lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)" -- "now illegal"

lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"

-- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"

* Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more

tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is

unique. (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left

order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)

* Renamed some inner syntax categories:

num ~> num_token

xnum ~> xnum_token

xstr ~> str_token

Minor INCOMPATIBILITY. Note that in practice "num_const" or

"num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include

position information via constraints).

* Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see

"syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref

manual. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms

in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.

* Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',

'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.

Use commands of the generic code generator instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use

"code_unfold" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual

"code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like

definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued. Use 'type_synonym'

instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental

collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as

legacy since Isabelle2011).

*** HOL ***

* Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before

Isabelle2008). Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.

Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY. For developments keeping predicates and

sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has

been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some

predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".

Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any

tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as

possible.

For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a

planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate

and what a set. It can be helpful to carry out that step in

Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.

* Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather

than predicates. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set

* The representation of numerals has changed. Datatype "num"

represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions

"numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent

positive and negated numeric literals, respectively. See also

definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some

user theories may require adaptations as follows:

- Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These

classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.

- Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,

and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until

after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.

- Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"

pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.

- Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes

automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and

simprocs may now apply within the proof.

- Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:

Redefine using other integer operations.

* Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing

"descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient

package. (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future

development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the

corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)

- transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,

which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may

relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,

or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding

operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:

((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map

(cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int

- transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an

equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are

replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.

Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is

necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden

for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z". The

variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that

is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).

- relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of

various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)". The

transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for

non-polymorphic constants on the fly.

- transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a

new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other

constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied

after unfolding the constant definitions.

- HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer

from type nat to type int.

* Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition

facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.

- lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in

terms of a corresponding operation on a representation

type. Example syntax:

lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"

is List.insert

Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each

constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,

the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is

presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness

theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated

by the package.

- Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes

corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),

lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up

code generation for each constant.

- setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a

user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem

or a type_definition theorem. The package configures transfer

rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the

lift_definition command to work with the type.

- Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,

Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,

Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.

* Quotient package:

- The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with

rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.

- 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and

Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.

- The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a

respectfulness property at the point where the constant is

defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.

- Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems

accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.

* New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially

superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.

* Quickcheck:

- Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which

allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.

For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable

assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that

any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.

These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as

Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the

obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".

After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck

continues searching for genuine ones.

By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine

counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only

show genuine counterexamples.

- The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive

value generators for a given type and operations.

It generates values by using the operations as if they were

constructors of that type.

- Support for multisets.

- Added "use_subtype" options.

- Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process

conjectures in a locale context.

* Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option

and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.

* Sledgehammer:

- Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012

paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".

- Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.

- Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and

TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.

- Sped up the minimizer.

- Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.

- Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").

- Renamed "sound" option to "strict".

* Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a

parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").

* SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".

* Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple

case distinctions at the same time. E.g.

list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]

produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both

a list and a nat.

* New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the

eventually_elim* rules. Supports structured proofs.

* Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy. Use

"typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the

default.

* Record: code generation can be switched off manually with

declare [[record_coden = false]] -- "default true"

* Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.

* Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source

positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.

INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the

pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of

one_case.

* Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying

the result of the fact expression.

* More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations

and predicates. Added powers of predicate relations. Consolidation

of some relation theorems:

converse_def ~> converse_unfold

rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold

symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)

transp_def ~> transp_trans

Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold

Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]

Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.

See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set

conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow

to match the constant's name:

rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1

rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I

rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I

rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2

rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E

rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E

rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E

rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2

rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2

rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'

rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2

rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add

rel_pow_commute ~> relpow

rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:

rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow

rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl

rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow

rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow

rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv

rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1

rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded

rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow

trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow

single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition

and corresponding theorem names:

- Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.

- Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.

- Renamed theorems:

rel_compI ~> relcompI

rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair

rel_compE ~> relcompE

pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq

rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1

rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono

rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma

rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib

rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2

rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib

rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2

single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp

rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold

converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp

pred_compI ~> relcomppI

pred_compE ~> relcomppE

pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1

pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2

transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq

pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono

pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib

pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2

converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp

finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp

set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.

INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.

DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0

zdiv_self ~> div_self

zmod_self ~> mod_self

zdiv_zero ~> div_0

zmod_zero ~> mod_0

zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2

zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality

zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial

zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus

zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus

zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right

zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right

zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right

zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right

zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel

zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq

zpower_zmod ~> power_mod

zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod

zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd

mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left

mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right

* Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use

generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Finite_Set.fold now qualified. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:

inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf

sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup

INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf

SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup

union_set ~> union_set_fold

minus_set ~> minus_set_fold

INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold

SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold

INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr

SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr

foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)

foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold

foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold

foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl

foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr

fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups

fold_set ~> fold_set_fold

fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:

foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,

rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,

concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,

foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,

listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,

foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.

INCOMPATIBILITY. For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"

and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum". Otherwise it can be

useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by

unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".

* Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,

inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,

Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,

INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr. INCOMPATIBILITY. Prefer corresponding

lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas

fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.

* Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion

through option types.

* "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on

relations.

* Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.

INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.

zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus

zminus_0 ~> minus_zero

zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib

zadd_commute ~> add_commute

zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc

zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute

zadd_ac ~> add_ac

zmult_ac ~> mult_ac

zadd_0 ~> add_0_left

zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right

zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus

zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left

zmult_commute ~> mult_commute

zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc

zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib

zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib

zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib

zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib

zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left

zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right

zle_refl ~> order_refl

zle_trans ~> order_trans

zle_antisym ~> order_antisym

zle_linear ~> linorder_linear

zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear

zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono

zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono

zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono

int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one

int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one

zless_le ~> less_le

zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add

zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff

zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs

* Theory Deriv: Renamed

DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing

* Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.

* Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets

are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax

⊕/⊗ has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant

setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,

use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.

* Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black

trees is now inside a type class context. Names of affected

operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_. INCOMPATIBILITY for

theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as

follows:

Operations:

bulkload -> rbt_bulkload

del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left

del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right

del -> rbt_del

delete -> rbt_delete

ins -> rbt_ins

insert -> rbt_insert

insertw -> rbt_insert_with

insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key

map_entry -> rbt_map_entry

lookup -> rbt_lookup

sorted -> rbt_sorted

tree_greater -> rbt_greater

tree_less -> rbt_less

tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol

union -> rbt_union

union_with -> rbt_union_with

union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key

Lemmas:

balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted

balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater

balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less

balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted

balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater

balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less

balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted

balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater

balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less

bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt

combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted

combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater

combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less

delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree

delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt

del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater

del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less

del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater

del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less

del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree

del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2

del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted

del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater

del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less

dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch

entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup

finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup

insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted

insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt

insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt

insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted

insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted

ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted

ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater

ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less

is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted

lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance

lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload

lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete

lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty

lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree

lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree

lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins

lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert

lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw

lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk

lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys

lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map

lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry

lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater

lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less

lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union

map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of

map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1

map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2

map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt

map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted

map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater

map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less

map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater

map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less

map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted

paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted

paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup

paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater

paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less

sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries

tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans

tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit

tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop

tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps

tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans

tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans

tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit

tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop

tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps

tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans

tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props

union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch

union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt

unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt

unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt

unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted

* Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as

a subset of the real numbers. All operations are defined using the

lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method. INCOMPATIBILITY.

Changed Operations:

float_abs -> abs

float_nprt -> nprt

float_pprt -> pprt

pow2 -> use powr

round_down -> float_round_down

round_up -> float_round_up

scale -> exponent

Removed Operations:

ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod

Renamed Lemmas:

abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs

bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg

bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen

float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent

float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl

float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr

float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff

float_power -> real_of_float_power

lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat

lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat

le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le

le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq

less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less

less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq

normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat

normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0

normfloat -> normfloat_def

normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def

number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral

one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one

plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus

rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat

rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat

real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq

real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq

real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq

real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq

real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq

real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq

real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq

real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq

round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down

round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up

times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times

uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus

zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero

Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:

bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,

float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,

float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,

float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,

floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,

lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,

rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,

real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,

round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float

* New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for

association lists with distinct keys.

* Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of

annotated commands.

* Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,

simpler, and more scalable. Requires a proof bundle, which is

available as an external component. Discontinued old (and mostly

dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to

type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems

instead.

word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi

word_add_alt ~> word_add_def

word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def

word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def

word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi

word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi

word_add_0 ~> add_0_left

word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right

word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left

word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right

word_add_commute ~> add_commute

word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc

word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute

word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute

word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc

word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute

word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib

word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib

word_left_minus ~> left_minus

word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right

word_diff_self ~> diff_self

word_sub_def ~> diff_minus

word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus

word_add_ac ~> add_ac

word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac

word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac

word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac

word_order_trans ~> order_trans

word_order_refl ~> order_refl

word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym

word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear

lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one

word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq

word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add

word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub

word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult

word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg

word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ

word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred

word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi

word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi

* Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting

machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,

defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy. Supports addition, subtraction,

multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric

constants. Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word. Solves

many standard word identities outright and converts more into first

order problems amenable to blast or similar. See also examples in

HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.

* Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to

represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a

measure_space. The locales based on subset_class now have two

locale-parameters the space Ω and the set of measurable sets M.

The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the

finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)

measure". Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain

an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or μ'.

Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got

their own constants distr and density. Instead of using locales to

describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space

and point_measure is introduced. INCOMPATIBILITY.

Renamed constants:

measure -> emeasure

finite_measure.μ' -> measure

product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra

product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb

product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM

Removed locales:

completeable_measure_space

finite_measure_space

finite_prob_space

finite_product_finite_prob_space

finite_product_sigma_algebra

finite_sigma_algebra

measure_space

pair_finite_prob_space

pair_finite_sigma_algebra

pair_finite_space

pair_sigma_algebra

product_sigma_algebra

Removed constants:

conditional_space

distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate

image_space

joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate

pair_measure_generator

product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM

subvimage

Replacement theorems:

finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite

finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty

finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq

finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq

finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably

finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure

finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite

finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton

finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg

finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real

finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb

finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite

finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty

information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed

information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple

information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple

information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple

information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple

information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple

information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed

information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed

information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple

information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform

information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq

information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0

information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg

information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed

information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple

Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost

Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral

measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"

measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive

measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null

measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter

measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD

measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq

measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq

measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq

measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq

measure_space_density -> emeasure_density

measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density

measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr

measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density

measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr

measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure

measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl

measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing

measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably

measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure

measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff

measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set

measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0

measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite

measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton

measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure

measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert

measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono

measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf

measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq

measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure

measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover

measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr

measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite

measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive

measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space

measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0

measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set

measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density

measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr

measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq

measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq

measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably

measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff

measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union

measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton

measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive

measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union

measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION

measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp

measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr

measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr

measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq

measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq

pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1

pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2

pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1

pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2

pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff

pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap

pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'

pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap

pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1

pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2

pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap

pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2

pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt

pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times

prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM

prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq

prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1

prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr

prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict

prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space

product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all

product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite

product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space

product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite

product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite

product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator

product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb

product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty

product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton

product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb

product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single

product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton

product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb

product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict

product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed

product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge

product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton

product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge

sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable

sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM

sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of

sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint

sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr

sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq

space_product_algebra -> space_PiM

* Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all

languages) into Isabelle/HOL.

*** FOL ***

* New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).

*** ZF ***

* Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case

analysis.

* Much greater use of mathematical symbols.

* Removal of many ML theorem bindings. INCOMPATIBILITY.

*** ML ***

* Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax

from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.

* Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the

Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory

header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.

* Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name

"foo_def", but retains the binding as given. If that is Binding.empty

/ Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level

fact. The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a

non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),

while omitting the fact binding in the user-context. Potential

INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify

naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.

* Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in

conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.

* Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source

representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with

declarations like Local_Theory.note.

* Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme. Old

ProofContext has been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle

change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory

context as well.

* Modernized some old-style infix operations:

addeqcongs ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong

deleqcongs ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong

addcongs ~> Simplifier.add_cong

delcongs ~> Simplifier.del_cong

setmksimps ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps

setmkcong ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong

setmksym ~> Simplifier.set_mksym

setmkeqTrue ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue

settermless ~> Simplifier.set_termless

setsubgoaler ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler

addsplits ~> Splitter.add_split

delsplits ~> Splitter.del_split

*** System ***

* USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home

directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only. Likewise,

the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead

of former $HOME. A different default for USER_HOME may be set

explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are

evaluated. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where

the generic user home was intended.

* ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name

notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.

* ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar

(not just JRE).

New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)

------------------------------------

*** General ***

* Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as

"isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.

- Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor

buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save

files for checking).

- Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic

highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source

positions.

- Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source

buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML

theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).

- Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,

based on interactive editor view. (Note: jEdit folding and

narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)

- Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few

cores.

- Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document

versions (garbage collection).

See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,

including some remaining limitations.

* Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master

directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).

The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.

Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the

Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1

digests. Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional

ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.

* Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to

Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100). See also isabelle

usedir option -Q.

* Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper

configuration options, with more conventional names:

long_names ~> names_long

short_names ~> names_short

unique_names ~> names_unique

Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:

declare [[names_unique = false]]

* Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`. Note

that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications

may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.

* Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case

can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].

* Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:

- "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.

- Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.

- Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about

"Classical Reasoner".

*** HOL ***

* Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than

preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;

generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong. New type classes for

complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders. Lemmas

Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in

class complete_linorder.

Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,

Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.

Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to

replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):

Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]

Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]

Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right

Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right

Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right

Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right

Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def

Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def

INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def

UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def

INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]

More consistent and comprehensive names:

INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def

UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def

INFI_def ~> INF_def

SUPR_def ~> SUP_def

INF_leI ~> INF_lower

INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2

le_INFI ~> INF_greatest

le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper

le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2

SUP_leI ~> SUP_least

INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq

SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq

INFI_apply ~> INF_apply

SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply

INTER_def ~> INTER_eq

UNION_def ~> UNION_eq

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,

INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,

Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,

Sup_insert are now declared as [simp]. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,

compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,

sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp]. Minor

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective

constants. INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the

(mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.

* Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems

referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection

UN_ball_bex_simps. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a

separate type class floor_ceiling.

* Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:

locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute

locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem

Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need

adjustment. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in

accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the

bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in

order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the

original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib

divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib

divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib

mult.add_right ~> right_distrib

mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib

mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib

mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib

* Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or

replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.

real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def

real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def

real_less_def ~> less_le

real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def

real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def

real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute

real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc

real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left

real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib

real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one

real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse

INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero

real_le_refl ~> order_refl

real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym

real_le_trans ~> order_trans

real_le_linear ~> linear

real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0

real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono

real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos

real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono

real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq

real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff

realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff

real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored

realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored

reals_complete2 ~> complete_real

real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum

exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique

expi_add ~> exp_add

expi_zero ~> exp_zero

lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong

LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff

LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const

LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm

LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add

LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus

LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel

LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff

bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto

bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto

LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult

LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse

LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide

LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power

LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum

LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod

LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff

LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff

LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs

LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]

LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]

LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]

LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex

LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at

LIM_const ~> tendsto_const

LIM_add ~> tendsto_add

LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero

LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus

LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff

LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm

LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero

LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel

LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff

LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs

LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero

LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel

LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff

LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose

LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult

LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR

LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real

LIM_power ~> tendsto_power

LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse

LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn

isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose

bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto

bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero

bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto

bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero

bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero

bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero

LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]

* Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was

generalized. Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,

comm_monoid_add}. Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.

* Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now

a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus

several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".

* Code generation:

- Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of

characters in the target language.

- Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code

instead.

- Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.

- Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default. May be

reactivated by the following theory command:

setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}

* Declare ext [intro] by default. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.

* New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the

name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come

from rule induction. The latter are still called "hyps". Method

"induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same

syntax.

* Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is

still available as a legacy feature for some time.

* Nitpick:

- Added "need" and "total_consts" options.

- Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.

- Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Sledgehammer:

- Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.

- Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,

Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.

- Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if

this can be done within reasonable time.

- sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

- Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",

"max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.

- Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full

Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Metis:

- Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

- Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Command 'try':

- Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and

"elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.

- Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also

'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.

* Quickcheck:

- Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample

(currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).

- Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples

(currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).

- New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables

narrowing-based testing. Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler

with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings

environment as ISABELLE_GHC.

- Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator

(formly in HOL/Library).

* Function package: discontinued option "tailrec". INCOMPATIBILITY,

use 'partial_function' instead.

* Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended

reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by

Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.

* Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,

from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has

been moved here. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated

arithmetic.

* Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the

product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order

and lattice type classes.

* Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof

method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.

* Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets

(cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.

* Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories

for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an

abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.

- RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.

- AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.

- DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.

- Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.

* Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to

Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and

constants:

type inat ~> type enat

Fin ~> enat

Infty ~> infinity (overloaded)

iSuc ~> eSuc

the_Fin ~> the_enat

Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has

been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now

fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard

orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of

quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.

"ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".

* Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed

to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants

"Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to

"vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have

changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use

the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have

been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):

Cart_eq ~> vec_eq_iff

dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le

tendsto_vector ~> vec_tendstoI

Cauchy_vector ~> vec_CauchyI

* Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been

removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more

general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.

finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice

eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj

eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff

eventually_false ~> eventually_False

setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum

Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def

Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident

Lim_const ~> tendsto_const

Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]

Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus

Lim_add ~> tendsto_add

Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff

Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR

Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]

Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]

Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto

Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component

Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth

Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]

dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left

dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right

continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]

continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus

continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff

continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]

continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR

continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse

continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse

continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse

continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]

continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]

continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]

continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus

continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff

continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]

continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]

continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR

continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult

continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]

continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]

continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv

uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus

uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff

subset_interior ~> interior_mono

subset_closure ~> closure_mono

closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV

real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2

real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3

real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel

real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3

norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2

* Session HOL-Probability:

- Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.

- Infinite products of probability measures are now available.

- Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent

- Use extended reals instead of positive extended

reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.

expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff

below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI

expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff

ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI

expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff

below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI

monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD

monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE

monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]

cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]

cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP

cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app

cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app

cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]

cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]

contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]

contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]

thelubI ~> lub_eqI

UU_I ~> bottomI

lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)

lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)

Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)

Def_inject ~> lift.inject

below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff

eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff

*** Document preparation ***

* Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also

isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the

same.

* Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its

result.

* Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of

variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,

y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.

* Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols ⤜ and ⪢

(e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).

* Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups

like this:

\isabellestyle{it} %preferred default

{\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}

* Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators. Implicit

tab-width is now defined as 1. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual

layouts.

*** ML ***

* The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML

representations within quoted string tokens. By encoding logical

entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be

bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text

under external program control.

* Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory

data, which requires explicit setup.

* Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official

process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop

(better known as Proof General).

* Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme. Old

ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.

* Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes

former start_timing/end_timing etc.

* Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users

(including quotes etc.).

* Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories

"logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as

type constraints). Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant

translations that choke on unexpected type constraints. Positions can

be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /

Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant

"_strip_positions" within parse trees. As last resort, positions can

be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is

called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.

* Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute

to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less

pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY,

refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,

Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.

* Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is

already available via context of "advanced" translation.

* Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic

goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.

* Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving

pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).

* Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types

claset/clasimpset. Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs

operate directly on Proof.context. Raw type claset retains its use as

snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via

(put_claset HOL_cs) etc. Type clasimpset has been discontinued.

INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require

proper Proof.context.

*** System ***

* Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version

without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.

* Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been

obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.

* Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and

uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:

ISABELLE_CSDP (formerly CSDP_EXE)

ISABELLE_GHC (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)

ISABELLE_OCAML (formerly EXEC_OCAML)

ISABELLE_SWIPL (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)

ISABELLE_YAP (formerly EXEC_YAP)

Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has

been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static

methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML. For

example:

Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"

Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode

this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.

* The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the

Prover IDE. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have

installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to

delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.

New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)

----------------------------------

*** General ***

* Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see

src/Tools/jEdit). This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with

useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis. The

bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run

like this:

Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit

* Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.

* System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER

(and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),

while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra

suffix. This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each

other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.

INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.

* Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned

ISO-Latin-1. INCOMPATIBILITY. Isabelle LaTeX documents might require

the following package declarations:

\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}

\usepackage{textcomp}

* Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that

a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of

non-ASCII bytes as before. Since Isabelle/ML string literals may

contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be

used here as well. Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a

consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)

merely give a byte-oriented representation.

* Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master

directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).

The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.

Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use

explicit paths, relatively to the theory.

* Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.

Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --

at the cost of clarity of file dependencies. Recall that Isabelle/ML

files exclusively use the .ML extension. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly

handled within the context via configuration options, instead of

unsynchronized references or print modes. There are both ML Config.T

entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.

ML (Config.T) Isar (attribute)

eta_contract eta_contract

show_brackets show_brackets

show_sorts show_sorts

show_types show_types

show_question_marks show_question_marks

show_consts show_consts

show_abbrevs show_abbrevs

Syntax.ast_trace syntax_ast_trace

Syntax.ast_stat syntax_ast_stat

Syntax.ambiguity_level syntax_ambiguity_level

Goal_Display.goals_limit goals_limit

Goal_Display.show_main_goal show_main_goal

Method.rule_trace rule_trace

Thy_Output.display thy_output_display

Thy_Output.quotes thy_output_quotes

Thy_Output.indent thy_output_indent

Thy_Output.source thy_output_source

Thy_Output.break thy_output_break

Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be

changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.

The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode

"no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.

* More systematic naming of some configuration options.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

trace_simp ~> simp_trace

debug_simp ~> simp_debug

* Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic

floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for

float_token.

* Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):

front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from

DejaVu Sans.

* Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.

*** Pure ***

* Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat

outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some

time.

* Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)

replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for

experimentation in Isar without any result. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept

lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate

entities in the context of the interpretation. The 'interpretation'

command already provided this functionality.

* Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances

that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in

the current context. Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context

without interpretations.

* Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs

in addition to interpretations in theories.

* Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate

the theory name space. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY. The ML functions

Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this

feature is still required for historical reasons.

* Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

'definition' instead.

* The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of

foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as

legacy feature and will be discontinued soon. Consider using "assms"

of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.

* Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type

constructors.

* Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within

the local file system.

*** HOL ***

* Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type

inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term. Theory

Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as

coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:

declare [[coercion f]]

To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to

nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.

declare [[coercion_map map]]

Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including

real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main. This is controlled by

the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in

other theories like this:

declare [[coercion_enabled]]

* Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive

function definitions over complete partial orders. Concrete instances

are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary

types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL. See

src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy

for examples.

* Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared

as [simp]. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class

"eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.

* Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to

automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for

inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.

* Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the

functorial structure of types.

* Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator

techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.

* Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target

languages.

* Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"

have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints

to standard output. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Code generator: do not print function definitions for case

combinators any longer.

* Code generator: simplification with rules determined with

src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".

* Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record

types. Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code

generation any longer. INCOMPATIBILITY. In cases of need, a suitable

rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:

record 'a foo = ...

...

rep_datatype foo_ext ...

* Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a

'_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random

testing. Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",

exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".

* Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite

datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to

handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.

* Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to

"random". INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30

seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the

quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set

independently.

* Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for

counter example search.

* Sledgehammer:

- Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof

method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc

sledgehammer").

- Renamed commands:

sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers

sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers

sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers

INCOMPATIBILITY.

- Renamed options:

sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]

sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]

sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]

(and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Nitpick:

- Renamed options:

nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]

nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]

INCOMPATIBILITY.

- Added support for partial quotient types.

- Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.

- Added "whack" option.

- Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.

- Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.

- Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.

- Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach

higher cardinalities.

- Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.

* Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options

"meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled

to diagnose these tools. E.g.

using [[metis_trace = true]]

* Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct". The tool is now available

manually as command 'solve_direct'.

* The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to

licensing issues) by setting the environment variable

Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example. For

commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;

changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option

"smt_solver".

* Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,

i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".

* Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using

the oracle mode (no proofs). Direct support of pairs has been dropped

in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT

support for a similar behavior). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Changed SMT configuration options:

- Renamed:

z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)

z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts

INCOMPATIBILITY.

- Added:

smt_verbose

smt_random_seed

smt_datatypes

smt_infer_triggers

smt_monomorph_limit

cvc3_options

remote_cvc3_options

remote_z3_options

yices_options

* Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory

header.

* Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list

comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions. Occasional

INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:

declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]

* Removed old version of primrec package. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long

been the case with "split". INCOMPATIBILITY.

* String.literal is a type, but not a datatype. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of

[split_format]. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction

rules. INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.

* Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name

contents for other uses. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class

equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various

tuning. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to

avoid confusion with finite sets. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence

relations. INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same

for congruent(2)).

* Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:

types

bool ~> HOL.bool

nat ~> Nat.nat

constants

Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop

True ~> HOL.True

False ~> HOL.False

op & ~> HOL.conj

op | ~> HOL.disj

op --> ~> HOL.implies

op = ~> HOL.eq

Not ~> HOL.Not

The ~> HOL.The

All ~> HOL.All

Ex ~> HOL.Ex

Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1

Let ~> HOL.Let

If ~> HOL.If

Ball ~> Set.Ball

Bex ~> Set.Bex

Suc ~> Nat.Suc

Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair

fst ~> Product_Type.fst

snd ~> Product_Type.snd

curry ~> Product_Type.curry

op : ~> Set.member

Collect ~> Set.Collect

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:

bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def

top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def

inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def

sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def

bot_fun_eq ~> bot_fun_def

top_fun_eq ~> top_fun_def

inf_fun_eq ~> inf_fun_def

sup_fun_eq ~> sup_fun_def

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* More stylized fact names:

expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff

expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff

set_ext ~> set_eqI

nat_number ~> eval_nat_numeral

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:

constants

null ~> List.null

facts

mem_iff ~> member_def

null_empty ~> null_def

INCOMPATIBILITY. Note that these were not supposed to be used

regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code

generation.

Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating

Haskell code.

* Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV". Term

"surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV". The theorems

bij_def and surj_def are unchanged. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace

"*" and "+" respectively. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden. Write

"Sum_Type.Plus" instead.

* Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of

ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,

though. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"

instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.

INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be

referred to by its qualified name.

enum ~> Enum.enum

nlists ~> Enum.nlists

product ~> Enum.product

* Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.

Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into

Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names

for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of

sort_key.

* Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean

space. Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces

instead of finite cartesian products.

types

real ^ 'n ~> 'a::real_vector

~> 'a::euclidean_space

~> 'a::ordered_euclidean_space

(depends on your needs)

constants

_ $ _ ~> _ $$ _

χ x. _ ~> χχ x. _

CARD('n) ~> DIM('a)

Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some

finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products

of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to

be euclidean_spaces. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real

numbers. Use pextreal as value for measures. Introduce the

Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for

arbitrary sigma finite measures. Introduces Lebesgue measure based on

the integral in Multivariate Analysis. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and

prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program

verifier. See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.

*** HOL-Algebra ***

* Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and

descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative

counterparts. Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory

qualifier 'add'. Previous theorem names are redeclared for

compatibility.

* Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a

definition). This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.

*** HOLCF ***

* The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The

former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'. To use the domain

package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* The new class "domain" is now the default sort. Class "predomain"

is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by

replacing sort annotations as shown below. INCOMPATIBILITY.

'a::type ~> 'a::countable

'a::cpo ~> 'a::predomain

'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain

* The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".

Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any

"default_sort rep" declarations. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed

predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict

arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following

domain definition now works:

domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")

* Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class

instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,

'a option, and 'a list. Additionally, it configures fixrec and the

domain package to work with these types. For example:

fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"

where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"

domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")

* The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a

per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See

src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class

now just asserts that such a function exists. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl". HOLCF no longer

defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances

of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in

src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.

* The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".

* The predicate "directed" has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* The type class "finite_po" has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax

similar to sets, e.g. "⋃♯x∈xs. t" represents

"upper_bind⋅xs⋅(Λ x. t)".

* The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed

from e.g. "+♯" to "∪♯", for consistency with set

syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom". The syntax "UU" is

still supported as an input translation.

* Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).

expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff

below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI

expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff

ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI

expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff

below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI

cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP

* The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.

Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.

Rep_CFun ~> Rep_cfun

Abs_CFun ~> Abs_cfun

Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod

Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod

Rep_Ssum ~> Rep_ssum

Abs_Ssum ~> Abs_ssum

* Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have

been renamed to *_bottom_iff. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:

- Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.

- With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.

- With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.

- Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are

now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when". INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the

names of constants and types involved. INCOMPATIBILITY.

thelub_const ~> lub_const

lub_const ~> is_lub_const

thelubI ~> lub_eqI

is_lub_lub ~> is_lubD2

lubI ~> is_lub_lub

unique_lub ~> is_lub_unique

is_ub_lub ~> is_lub_rangeD1

lub_bin_chain ~> is_lub_bin_chain

lub_fun ~> is_lub_fun

thelub_fun ~> lub_fun

thelub_cfun ~> lub_cfun

thelub_Pair ~> lub_Pair

lub_cprod ~> is_lub_prod

thelub_cprod ~> lub_prod

minimal_cprod ~> minimal_prod

inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo

UU_I ~> bottomI

compact_UU ~> compact_bottom

deflation_UU ~> deflation_bottom

finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom

* Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY.

sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans

sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans

refl_less ~> below_refl

trans_less ~> below_trans

antisym_less ~> below_antisym

antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]

box_less ~> box_below

rev_trans_less ~> rev_below_trans

not_less2not_eq ~> not_below2not_eq

less_UU_iff ~> below_UU_iff

flat_less_iff ~> flat_below_iff

adm_less ~> adm_below

adm_not_less ~> adm_not_below

adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below

less_fun_def ~> below_fun_def

expand_fun_less ~> fun_below_iff

less_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI

less_discr_def ~> below_discr_def

discr_less_eq ~> discr_below_eq

less_unit_def ~> below_unit_def

less_cprod_def ~> below_prod_def

prod_lessI ~> prod_belowI

Pair_less_iff ~> Pair_below_iff

fst_less_iff ~> fst_below_iff

snd_less_iff ~> snd_below_iff

expand_cfun_less ~> cfun_below_iff

less_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI

injection_less ~> injection_below

less_up_def ~> below_up_def

not_Iup_less ~> not_Iup_below

Iup_less ~> Iup_below

up_less ~> up_below

Def_inject_less_eq ~> Def_below_Def

Def_less_is_eq ~> Def_below_iff

spair_less_iff ~> spair_below_iff

less_sprod ~> below_sprod

spair_less ~> spair_below

sfst_less_iff ~> sfst_below_iff

ssnd_less_iff ~> ssnd_below_iff

fix_least_less ~> fix_least_below

dist_less_one ~> dist_below_one

less_ONE ~> below_ONE

ONE_less_iff ~> ONE_below_iff

less_sinlD ~> below_sinlD

less_sinrD ~> below_sinrD

*** FOL and ZF ***

* All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper

identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =". INCOMPATIBILITY.

*** ML ***

* Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises

Fail if the argument is false. Due to inlining the source position of

failed assertions is included in the error output.

* Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML

text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.

Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.

* Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of

the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.

Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.

* Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority

of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.

* Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax

category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.

* Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with

ListPair.UnequalLengths.

* Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier. Note that the

main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.

* Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its

meaning. Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in

almost all situations.

* Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.

See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in

Isabelle/ML.

* Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its

meaning.

* Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its

operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is

rarely-used global-only stuff.

* Discontinued Output.debug. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln

instead (or tracing for high-volume output).

* Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty

printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.

* ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive. Rare

INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and

@{thms} for most purposes.

* ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar

interaction mode as before. Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been

discontinued -- use plain := instead. This should be *rare* anyway,

since modern tools always work via official context data, notably

configuration options.

* Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning

interrupts. Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that

avoid working directly with raw Interrupt. User code must not absorb

interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be

followed by re-raising of the original exception. Another common

source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of

the program subject to physical effects of the environment.

New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)

---------------------------------

*** General ***

* Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type

constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust

correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax. Within

the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by

their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with

their full internal name.

Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations

and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).

Some hints on upgrading:

- Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced

by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',

which are independent of this issue.

- 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax

provides the following special forms:

CONST c -- produces syntax version of constant c from context

XCONST c -- literally c, checked as constant from context

c -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'

Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the

system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains

extra variables".

Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their

concrete syntax. Some old translations rules need to be written

for the "type" category, using type constructor application

instead of pseudo-term application of the default category

"logic".

- 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following

antiquotations:

@{class_syntax c} -- type class c within parse tree / AST

@{term_syntax c} -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST

@{const_syntax c} -- ML version of "CONST c" above

@{syntax_const c} -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)

- Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*

represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim. Use @{class

c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax

antiquotations.

Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base

names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide. Recall

that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to

diagnose syntax problems.

* Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.

* Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof

body, too. This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',

'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is

similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.

* Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --

need to specify constant name and syntax separately. Internal ML

datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.

Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,

via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',

'schematic_corollary'. Thus the relevance of the proof is made

syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or

asynchronous interactive environment. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been

discontinued (old legacy feature).

* References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by

configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the

case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via

using [[trace_simp = true]]

Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in

subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or

disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.

* Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',

'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command. Minor

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is

more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.

*** Pure ***

* Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the

"unconstrain" operation internally. This eliminates all sort

constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit

OFCLASS-premises. On the proof term level, this operation is

automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs

are always free of sort constraints. INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that

inspect proof terms.

* Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that

are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself

are added internally. For example:

definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"

* Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory

"class" prefix. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Vacuous class specifications observe default sort. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

'class' instead.

* Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into

runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying

invariants.

* Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the

user space functionality any longer.

* Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale

subgoals. This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body. This allows to

experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.

* Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax

within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the

constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).

* Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory

context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or

assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.

* Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works

within a local theory context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

*** HOL ***

* Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without

introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not

possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL. Note that the logical environment may

contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different

non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.

* New package for quotient types. Commands 'quotient_type' and

'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by

quotient constructions. An example is the type of integers created by

quotienting pairs of natural numbers:

fun

intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"

where

"intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"

quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel

by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)

quotient_definition

"0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"

The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the

underlying "raw" type to the quotient type. The example

src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient

construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.

* Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid

clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.

* Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating

separate HOL-SMT session.

* List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed. Use library Word/Word.thy

for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in

the AFP entry RSAPPS.

* Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no

longer shadowed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes

instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and

ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"

instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

floor_number_of_eq ~> floor_number_of

le_floor_eq_number_of ~> number_of_le_floor

le_floor_eq_zero ~> zero_le_floor

le_floor_eq_one ~> one_le_floor

floor_less_eq_number_of ~> floor_less_number_of

floor_less_eq_zero ~> floor_less_zero

floor_less_eq_one ~> floor_less_one

less_floor_eq_number_of ~> number_of_less_floor

less_floor_eq_zero ~> zero_less_floor

less_floor_eq_one ~> one_less_floor

floor_le_eq_number_of ~> floor_le_number_of

floor_le_eq_zero ~> floor_le_zero

floor_le_eq_one ~> floor_le_one

floor_subtract_number_of ~> floor_diff_number_of

floor_subtract_one ~> floor_diff_one

ceiling_number_of_eq ~> ceiling_number_of

ceiling_le_eq_number_of ~> ceiling_le_number_of

ceiling_le_zero_eq ~> ceiling_le_zero

ceiling_le_eq_one ~> ceiling_le_one

less_ceiling_eq_number_of ~> number_of_less_ceiling

less_ceiling_eq_zero ~> zero_less_ceiling

less_ceiling_eq_one ~> one_less_ceiling

ceiling_less_eq_number_of ~> ceiling_less_number_of

ceiling_less_eq_zero ~> ceiling_less_zero

ceiling_less_eq_one ~> ceiling_less_one

le_ceiling_eq_number_of ~> number_of_le_ceiling

le_ceiling_eq_zero ~> zero_le_ceiling

le_ceiling_eq_one ~> one_le_ceiling

ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of

ceiling_subtract_one ~> ceiling_diff_one

* Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the

application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.

* Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"

provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as

implementation. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by

AFP/thys/Coinductive.

* Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has

been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.

* Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,

Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",

"Int" etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute

rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.

* Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory

"Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more

appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes

within the HOL theories. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:

- less_eq, less: Orderings

- zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups

- inverse, divide: Rings

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and

lattices):

lower_semilattice ~> semilattice_inf

upper_semilattice ~> semilattice_sup

dense_linear_order ~> dense_linorder

pordered_ab_group_add ~> ordered_ab_group_add

pordered_ab_group_add_abs ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs

pordered_ab_semigroup_add ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add

pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le

pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add

pordered_cancel_comm_semiring ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring

pordered_cancel_semiring ~> ordered_cancel_semiring

pordered_comm_monoid_add ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add

pordered_comm_ring ~> ordered_comm_ring

pordered_comm_semiring ~> ordered_comm_semiring

pordered_ring ~> ordered_ring

pordered_ring_abs ~> ordered_ring_abs

pordered_semiring ~> ordered_semiring

ordered_ab_group_add ~> linordered_ab_group_add

ordered_ab_semigroup_add ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add

ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add

ordered_comm_semiring_strict ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict

ordered_field ~> linordered_field

ordered_field_no_lb ~> linordered_field_no_lb

ordered_field_no_ub ~> linordered_field_no_ub

ordered_field_dense_linear_order ~> dense_linordered_field

ordered_idom ~> linordered_idom

ordered_ring ~> linordered_ring

ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor

ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor

ordered_ring_strict ~> linordered_ring_strict

ordered_semidom ~> linordered_semidom

ordered_semiring ~> linordered_semiring

ordered_semiring_1 ~> linordered_semiring_1

ordered_semiring_1_strict ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict

ordered_semiring_strict ~> linordered_semiring_strict

The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a

separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:

lordered_ab_group_add ~> lattice_ab_group_add

lordered_ab_group_add_abs ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs

lordered_ab_group_add_meet ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add

lordered_ab_group_add_join ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add

lordered_ring ~> lattice_ring

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Refined field classes:

- classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,

linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --

subsumes former division_by_zero class;

- numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Refined algebra theorem collections:

- dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;

- dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;

- proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem

groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;

- dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for

equal_neg_zero.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from

sets to lattices:

fun_left_comm_idem_inter ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf

fun_left_comm_idem_union ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup

inter_Inter_fold_inter ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf

union_Union_fold_union ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup

Inter_fold_inter ~> Inf_fold_inf

Union_fold_union ~> Sup_fold_sup

inter_INTER_fold_inter ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf

union_UNION_fold_union ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup

INTER_fold_inter ~> INFI_fold_inf

UNION_fold_union ~> SUPR_fold_sup

* Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been

replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.

Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed

by Inf_insert and Sup_insert. Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace

former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ. Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right

subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and

multiset order:

- pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax

<= and <;

- multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties

are provided by means of interpretation with prefix

multiset_order;

- less duplication, less historical organization of sections,

conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code

generation;

- use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,

if needed.

Renamed:

multiset_eq_conv_count_eq ~> multiset_ext_iff

multi_count_ext ~> multiset_ext

diff_union_inverse2 ~> diff_union_cancelR

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.

* Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.

* Theory List: added transpose.

* Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions

between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries

Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy. INCOMPATIBILITY.

Constants:

Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat ~> prod_encode

Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2 ~> prod_decode

Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij ~> int_encode

Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij ~> int_decode

Countable.pair_encode ~> prod_encode

NatIso.prod2nat ~> prod_encode

NatIso.nat2prod ~> prod_decode

NatIso.sum2nat ~> sum_encode

NatIso.nat2sum ~> sum_decode

NatIso.list2nat ~> list_encode

NatIso.nat2list ~> list_decode

NatIso.set2nat ~> set_encode

NatIso.nat2set ~> set_decode

Lemmas:

Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij ~> bij_int_decode

Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj ~> inj_prod_encode

Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj ~> surj_prod_encode

Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj ~> inj_prod_decode

Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj ~> surj_prod_decode

Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id ~> int_encode_inverse

Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id ~> int_decode_inverse

Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode

Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode

Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij ~> inj_int_encode

Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij ~> inj_int_decode

Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij ~> bij_int_encode

Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij ~> bij_int_decode

* Sledgehammer:

- Renamed ATP commands:

atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_atps

atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_atps

atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages

atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize

print_atps ~> sledgehammer available_atps

INCOMPATIBILITY.

- Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").

- Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize

Sledgehammer's behavior. See the manual for details.

- Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces

direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction. (This feature

is still experimental.)

- Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in

full-typed mode.

- Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.

* Nitpick:

- Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.

- Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.

- Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision

of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.

- Added support for quotient types.

- Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"

constructs.

- Added support for local definitions (for "function" and

"termination" proofs).

- Added support for term postprocessors.

- Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".

- Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.

- Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and

record getters.

- Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.

- Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.

- Improved precision of set constructs.

- Added "atoms" option.

- Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same

problems.

- Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and

"SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and

"SAT4J_Light". INCOMPATIBILITY.

- Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",

"sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.

- Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not

a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.

If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.

By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations

are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases

to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.

Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old

behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"

and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

*** HOLCF ***

* Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have

changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype

package. Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.

* The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for

recursive domain "foo". The reach lemma is now stated directly in

terms of "foo_take". Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must

be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously

of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form

like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.

Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,

potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now

declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each

constructor). INCOMPATIBILITY.

* For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"

rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.

foo_bar.reach ~> foo.reach bar.reach

foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma bar.take_lemma

* Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for

consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.

foo.ind ~> foo.induct

foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct

foo.coind ~> foo.coinduct

foo.casedist ~> foo.exhaust

foo.exhaust ~> foo.nchotomy

* For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package

now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.

foo_simps ~> foo.simps

foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold

foo_induct ~> foo.induct

* The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed. The "fixrec_simp"

method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* The "contlub" predicate has been removed. Proof scripts should use

lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.

* The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.

* The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of

Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.

*** ML ***

* Antiquotations for basic formal entities:

@{class NAME} -- type class

@{class_syntax NAME} -- syntax representation of the above

@{type_name NAME} -- logical type

@{type_abbrev NAME} -- type abbreviation

@{nonterminal NAME} -- type of concrete syntactic category

@{type_syntax NAME} -- syntax representation of any of the above

@{const_name NAME} -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)

@{const_abbrev NAME} -- abbreviated constant

@{const_syntax NAME} -- syntax representation of any of the above

* Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw

syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).

* Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary

values similar to the ML toplevel. The result is compiler dependent

and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.

* Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to

antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}. This replaces impure

Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do

not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.

* Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on

the context or even global references.

* SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174). It

uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).

* Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names

for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:

OuterKeyword ~> Keyword

OuterLex ~> Token

OuterParse ~> Parse

OuterSyntax ~> Outer_Syntax

PrintMode ~> Print_Mode

SpecParse ~> Parse_Spec

ThyInfo ~> Thy_Info

ThyLoad ~> Thy_Load

ThyOutput ~> Thy_Output

TypeInfer ~> Type_Infer

Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting

to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.

* Most operations that refer to a global context are named

accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or

ProofContext.init_global. There are some situations where a global

context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to

pass the proper local context through the code!

* Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data

needs to be pure. Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional

Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard

Theory_Data version.

* Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms

no longer minimize sorts. Thus certification at the boundary of the

inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,

which is an important monotonicity principle. Sorts are now minimized

in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the

system. Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort

explicitly in rare situations.

* Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to

emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as

usual for resolution. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global

to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is

quite rare).

* Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted

as infinity (as in chop). Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical

order of type variables. INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof

terms.

* Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs

may no longer carry premises. User-level specifications are

transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.

*** System ***

* Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;

ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions. Note that

proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.

* Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy

feature since Isabelle2009). Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,

respectively.

* Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the

ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit

variant, even on a 64 bit machine. The following example setting

prefers 64 bit if available:

ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"

* The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging

Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.

See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built

component.

* "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono

and Bluesky TeX fonts. It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,

similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system

(cf. isabellesym.sty). The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System

provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking

the user for manual installation.

New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)

-------------------------------------

*** General ***

* Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \∀. Only

one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.

*** Pure ***

* Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.

The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map

local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.

* Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'. Use "print_interps

loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.

Interpretations in proofs are not shown.

* Thoroughly revised locales tutorial. New section on conditional

interpretation.

* On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters

are formally declared. INCOMPATIBILITY.

*** Document preparation ***

* New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}

instead of @{foo_style style ...} (old form is still retained for

backward compatibility). Styles can be also applied for

antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.

*** HOL ***

* New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with

equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and

fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order

features (esp. lambda abstractions). It is an incomplete decision

procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;

for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing. Certificates

are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for

re-checking proofs. Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for

installing SMT solvers locally. See src/HOL/SMT.

* New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by

the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C

Compiler (VCC) or Spec#). See src/HOL/Boogie.

* New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod

relational model finder. See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and

src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.

* New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate

compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.

* A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.

* New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;

default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records

and datatypes. Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory

Library/SML_Quickcheck.

* New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools. Applies

several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to

every proof step in a theory. To be used in batch mode via the

"mirabelle" utility.

* New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real

arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory

Library/Sum_Of_Squares. It is not a complete decision procedure but

works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,

*, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and

inequalities between polynomials. It makes use of external

semidefinite programming solvers. Method "sos" generates a

certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need

to call an external tool every time the proof is checked. See

src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.

* New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision

procedure only.

* New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.

* New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.

Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs. This slows

ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"

that fail later.

* New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type

information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.

* New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using

the same method as the approximation method.

* Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as

boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor

series expansion.

* ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype

generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.

* New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of

reals.

* New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure

theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.

* Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's

fixpoint theorem.

* Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:

- new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides

and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory

- some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int

accordingly

- former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including

theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)

- moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to

src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory

* Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and

lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete

lattice.

* Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of

div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,

div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been

generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems

zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and

zdiv_zmult_zmult2. div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Refinements to lattice classes and sets:

- less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default

intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity

- lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with

le_inf_iff

- dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and

sup_aci)

- renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci

- new class "boolean_algebra"

- class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory

"Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)

renamed and with authentic syntax:

Set.Inf ~> Complete_Lattice.Inf

Set.Sup ~> Complete_Lattice.Sup

Set.INFI ~> Complete_Lattice.INFI

Set.SUPR ~> Complete_Lattice.SUPR

Set.Inter ~> Complete_Lattice.Inter

Set.Union ~> Complete_Lattice.Union

Set.INTER ~> Complete_Lattice.INTER

Set.UNION ~> Complete_Lattice.UNION

- authentic syntax for

Set.Pow

Set.image

- mere abbreviations:

Set.empty (for bot)

Set.UNIV (for top)

Set.inter (for inf, formerly Set.Int)

Set.union (for sup, formerly Set.Un)

Complete_Lattice.Inter (for Inf)

Complete_Lattice.Union (for Sup)

Complete_Lattice.INTER (for INFI)

Complete_Lattice.UNION (for SUPR)

- object-logic definitions as far as appropriate

INCOMPATIBILITY. Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or

Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also

their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be

deleted to achieve the desired effect.

* Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp

rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1

etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as

pred_set_conv by default. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated

constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^". Power operation on

multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic

in class power. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:

"R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}". INCOMPATIBILITY,

rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally

break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this. Fix using

O_assoc[symmetric]. The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".

* Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an

abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV". Lemmas are renamed accordingly.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory

prefixes. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by

the attribute of the same name. Each of the theorems in the list

DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and

matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the

Simplifier. Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative

of most elementary terms. Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and

Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:

code_unfold replaces code unfold

code_post replaces code post

etc.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Renamed methods:

sizechange -> size_change

induct_scheme -> induction_schema

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".

INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.

* Renamed theorems:

Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1

Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left

Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1

*anti_sym -> *antisym*

vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Added theorem List.map_map as [simp]. Removed List.map_compose.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).

INCOMPATIBILITY.

*** HOLCF ***

* Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are

representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".

Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.

* The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the

domain package, for representable domains. Syntax is identical to the

old domain package. The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect

recursion using previously-defined type constructors. See

src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.

* Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant

on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs

simplification. Rewriting is done using rules declared with the

"fixrec_simp" attribute. The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a

replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.

* The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors

with HOL function types. Pattern-match combinators for the Pair

constructor are pre-configured.

* The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules

for mutually-recursive definitions: Induction rules have conclusions

of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".

* The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "⊑") has

been renamed to "below". The name "below" now replaces "less" in many

theorem names. (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported

as well.)

* The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns". Bottom

patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make

functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the

Glasgow Haskell Compiler). See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

examples.

*** ML ***

* Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler

errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.

* Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely

identified entries, with some additional information such as source

position, logical grouping etc.

* Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and

modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data. Data needs

to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit

copy operation) is still available for some time.

* Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)

provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state

variables with atomic update. This works via pure function

application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as

short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,

either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!

* Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)

wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe

behaviour. The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to

accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive

experiments with references.

* PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for

parallel tactical reasoning.

* Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS

are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the

specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the

body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.

* Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has

been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion. Use SUBPROOF

or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.

* Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph. (Since

functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them

separately.) Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar. Occasional,

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty

mode, which avoids critical setmp.

* Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related

combinators for "args". INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified

Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.

* Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of. May fall

back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as

last resort. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former

ProofContext.pretty_thm). May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global

or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context

instead of global theory.

*** System ***

* Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores

(max. speedup factor 5.0). See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and

usedir option -q.

* Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see

also the system manual.

* The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with

IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".

* Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;

this is always enabled.

* Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.

* Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'

on a given logic image. This requires the lighttpd webserver and is

currently supported on Linux only.

New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)

--------------------------------

*** General ***

* Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on

case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).

- The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of

"isatool."

- The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been

removed (should rarely occur to regular users).

- The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been

removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).

Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables

ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,

respectively. (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)

The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if

the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise. Individual

interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the

Isabelle system manual. In particular, Proof General is now available

via "isabelle emacs".

INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts. Users may need to

purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle

install -p ...", or use symlinks.

* The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the

old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause

surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).

INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,

~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place. Special

care is required when using older releases of Isabelle. Note that

ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any

Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.

* Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on

multi-core systems. A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on

a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably

large (cf. Poly/ML option -H). (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)

* The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and

"system") have been updated and extended. Formally checked references

as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.

*** Pure ***

* Complete re-implementation of locales. INCOMPATIBILITY in several

respects. The most important changes are listed below. See the

Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.

- In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming. Parameters

must be declared in a for clause. To aid compatibility with previous

parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not

'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added

with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.

- Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in

locale expressions and context elements. The latter is particularly

useful in locale declarations.

- More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale

expressions. Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale

expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or

optional (syntax "name?:"). The default depends for plain "name:"

depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in

commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in

'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory. The old

implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are

no longer generated.

- Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e". The

instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square

brackets) is no longer available. Use locale expressions.

- When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in

'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even

if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior. In the

worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones. Qualifiers

in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.

- Dropped locale element "includes". This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.

In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the

respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those

that are already present in the theorem specification. Multiple

assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one

involving the locale predicate. In the proof body, declarations (most

notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective

locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").

If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the

parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,

consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on

the parameters (context element "constrains").

- Discontinued "locale (open)". INCOMPATIBILITY.

- Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.

INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs. Use

methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.

- Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation

attributes. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import

list any longer, but is inferred from the specification. Particularly

in HOL, write

class foo = ...

instead of

class foo = type + ...

* Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a

parameter prefix any longer. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.

INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.

* Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in

Isabelle2007. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really

makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.

* Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in

isar-ref manual. Removed locales meta_term_syntax and

meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,

INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations. Note that &&& should not be used

directly in regular applications.

* There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal

fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).

* Removed exotic 'token_translation' command. INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML

interface with 'setup' command instead.

* Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local

theory context.

* The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory

context. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort

hypotheses. Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be

covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the

type instance information of the background theory. Non-trivial sort

hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via

vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c). For example:

lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...

The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --

SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule

normalization.

* Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state

addressing etc.

* Changed defaults for unify configuration options:

unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)

unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)

* Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):

a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular

constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other

parts of the code generator framework).

b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code

attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming

from definition, primrec, fun etc.

* Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Unified theorem tables for both code generators. Thus [code

func] has disappeared and only [code] remains. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name

patterns, e.g.

find_consts "_ => bool"

By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to

the whole type. Searching by name is possible. Multiple queries are

conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a

hyphen:

find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"

* New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that

directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).

* Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal

is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could

solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.

Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,

enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of

higher-order unification.

*** Document preparation ***

* Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,

demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression

syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.

*** HOL ***

* Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL. Entry

points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.

* Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important

tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...). This facilitates

experimentation and tool development. Note that user applications

(and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory

Main, as before.

* Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates

experimentation due to shorter build times.

* Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which

were previously part of former HOL-Complex. Entry point Hyperreal

remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use

new entry point Hypercomplex.

* Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of

Posix processes. Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML

process. New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix

platforms (Cygwin). Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined

within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions. Basic Sledgehammer

commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.

* Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use

sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other

provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also

src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.

* ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings

menu.

* The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial

(contains the empty clause).

* The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising

an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.

* Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also

src/Tools/coherent.ML).

* Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary". Usually

"undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though

logically there is no difference. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms. The

result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed. In

square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be

specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]). See further

src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.

* Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.

Declare with attribute [code nbe].

* Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules

as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the

corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes. Mutual induction rules

are now presented as a list of individual projections

(e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with

explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, in

rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple

elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t

rule: prod.exhaust) here.

* Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.

* Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".

* The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option. Renamed

option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.

* New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial

orders. With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about

(in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",

"strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".

* Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with

authentic syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY:

op Int ~> Set.Int

op Un ~> Set.Un

INTER ~> Set.INTER

UNION ~> Set.UNION

Inter ~> Set.Inter

Union ~> Set.Union

{} ~> Set.empty

UNIV ~> Set.UNIV

* Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in

theory Set.

* Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any

parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.

* Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.

* Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,

Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.

* Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof

method "approximation". It proves formulas on real values by using

interval arithmetic. In the formulas are also the transcendental

functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are

allowed. For examples see

src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.

* Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.

* Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution

structure:

src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy

src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/

src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/

src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/

src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/

src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/

src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/

src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/

src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/

src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/

src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/

src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/

src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/

src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/

src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/

src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/

src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/

src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/

src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/

src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/

src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/

src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/

src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/

src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/

src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/

src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/

src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/

src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/

src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach

src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/

src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML

src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

* If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof

state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if

possible), avoiding strange error messages.

* Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a

modification of) the size-change principle. Requires SAT solver. See

src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.

* Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound

variable occurs at most once in let expression body. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when

fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.

* New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used

automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in

proofs, e.g.

assumes [arith]: "x > 0"

Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.

* New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and

"bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"

requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot". INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an

instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit

induction rule "less_induct" as assumption. For instantiation of

"wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".

INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder

etc. slightly changed. Some theorems named order_class.* now named

preorder_class.*.

* Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,

"diag" to "Id_on".

* Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type

('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b

Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator

which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to

fold_image.

* Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"

and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be

extended with further lemmas!). At the moment both still exist but

the former will disappear at some point.

* Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in

class recpower. Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types

have been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:

rat_power_0 -> power_0

rat_power_Suc -> power_Suc

realpow_0 -> power_0

realpow_Suc -> power_Suc

complexpow_0 -> power_0

complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc

power_poly_0 -> power_0

power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc

* Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been

moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on

dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1. Likewise a bunch

of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class

semiring_div. INCOMPATIBILITY. This involves the following theorem

renames resulting from duplicate elimination:

dvd_def_mod ~> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0

zero_dvd_iff ~> dvd_0_left_iff

dvd_0 ~> dvd_0_right

DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0

DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0

mult_div ~> div_mult_self2_is_id

mult_mod ~> mod_mult_self2_is_0

* Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based

generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field). INCOMPATIBILITY,

rename old lemmas as follows:

dvd_diff -> nat_dvd_diff

dvd_zminus_iff -> dvd_minus_iff

mod_add1_eq -> mod_add_eq

mod_mult1_eq -> mod_mult_right_eq

mod_mult1_eq' -> mod_mult_left_eq

mod_mult_distrib_mod -> mod_mult_eq

nat_mod_add_left_eq -> mod_add_left_eq

nat_mod_add_right_eq -> mod_add_right_eq

nat_mod_div_trivial -> mod_div_trivial

nat_mod_mod_trivial -> mod_mod_trivial

zdiv_zadd_self1 -> div_add_self1

zdiv_zadd_self2 -> div_add_self2

zdiv_zmult_self1 -> div_mult_self2_is_id

zdiv_zmult_self2 -> div_mult_self1_is_id

zdvd_triv_left -> dvd_triv_left

zdvd_triv_right -> dvd_triv_right

zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left

zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]

zmod_zadd_left_eq -> mod_add_left_eq

zmod_zadd_right_eq -> mod_add_right_eq

zmod_zadd_self1 -> mod_add_self1

zmod_zadd_self2 -> mod_add_self2

zmod_zadd1_eq -> mod_add_eq

zmod_zdiff1_eq -> mod_diff_eq

zmod_zdvd_zmod -> mod_mod_cancel

zmod_zmod_cancel -> mod_mod_cancel

zmod_zmult_self1 -> mod_mult_self2_is_0

zmod_zmult_self2 -> mod_mult_self1_is_0

zmod_1 -> mod_by_1

zdiv_1 -> div_by_1

zdvd_abs1 -> abs_dvd_iff

zdvd_abs2 -> dvd_abs_iff

zdvd_refl -> dvd_refl

zdvd_trans -> dvd_trans

zdvd_zadd -> dvd_add

zdvd_zdiff -> dvd_diff

zdvd_zminus_iff -> dvd_minus_iff

zdvd_zminus2_iff -> minus_dvd_iff

zdvd_zmultD -> dvd_mult_right

zdvd_zmultD2 -> dvd_mult_left

zdvd_zmult_mono -> mult_dvd_mono

zdvd_0_right -> dvd_0_right

zdvd_0_left -> dvd_0_left_iff

zdvd_1_left -> one_dvd

zminus_dvd_iff -> minus_dvd_iff

* Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated

into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.

* Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of

univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a. In addition to

the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod. Code

generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.

* Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real

inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a

=> real. Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from

theory RealVector.

* Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product

type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.

Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,

and inner products are included.

* Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2. In

addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also

supported.

* Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's

first diagonalization argument.

* Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,

zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in

the HOL Distribution. Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and

ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY,

may recover tupled syntax as follows:

hide (open) const gcd

abbreviation gcd where

"gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"

notation (output)

GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")

The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.

* Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more

instantiations for algebraic structures. Removed some duplicate

theorems. Changes in simp rules. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates

corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding

resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.

All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated

simultaneously. Provides a generic and safe interface for

instrumentalizing code generation. See

src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.

In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML

code on the ML toplevel. Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}

cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are

set. Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that

cases.

* Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now

takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be

represented as datatype. The characteristic theorems have to be

proven. INCOMPATIBILITY. Also observe that the following theorems

have disappeared in favour of existing ones:

unit_induct ~> unit.induct

prod_induct ~> prod.induct

sum_induct ~> sum.induct

Suc_Suc_eq ~> nat.inject

Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc ~> nat.distinct

*** HOL-Algebra ***

* New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation

is not restricted to equality. INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice

locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.

* New theory of factorial domains.

* Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.

INCOMPATIBILITY. Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv

and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.

* Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:

UpperD ~> Upper_memD

LowerD ~> Lower_memD

least_carrier ~> least_closed

greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed

greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below

one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero

one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero (collision with assumption)

*** HOL-Nominal ***

* Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.

* Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local

theory targets.

* Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its

specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in

'inductive' etc.

* Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes

(no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.

* The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the

left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.

* Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction

principles for inductive definitions. In contrast to

'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of

binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of

atoms to be avoided. The only inductive definition we have at the

moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in

the algorithm W:

Gamma |- t1 : T1 (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2 x#Gamma

-----------------------------------------------------------------

Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2

In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by

"close Gamma T1". We are looking for other examples where this

feature might be useful. Please let us know.

*** HOLCF ***

* Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity

subgoals. The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional

continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].

* The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for

solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions. In

some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the

old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.

Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general

format as seen in 'inductive' etc. See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.

*** ZF ***

* Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.

*** ML ***

* Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for

Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later. Important note: the TimeLimit facility

depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML

5.2.1!

* High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see

src/Pure/Cuncurrent. The data-oriented model of "future values" is

particularly convenient to organize independent functional

computations. The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a

higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the

delicate details of mutexes and condition variables. (Requires

Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)

* ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar

context (theory or proof). Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'

become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning

top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).

INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the

compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a

theory. (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)

* Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof

context. Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in

a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.

ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the

proof. (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)

* Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup

and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and

'method_setup'. INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify

existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old

Method.add_method.

* Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm

to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle

name. The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type

is specified. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code

accordingly. Note that extra performance may be gained by producing

the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.

* Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via

ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally

ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user

antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common

examples.

* More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and

name space operations. Basic operations on qualified names have been

move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,

Long_Name.append. Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by

abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise

qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper

tracking of source positions. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old

bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract

bindings everywhere. See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,

src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML

* Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,

LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the

bstring as before. INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!

* Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,

Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,

Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.). INCOMPATIBILITY, should

use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,

Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last

resort for legacy applications.

* Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to

the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,

Simp_tac, SIMPSET). INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in

embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as

explicit runtime argument.

* Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,

res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof

context, which is required for parsing and type-checking. Moreover,

the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings

thereof. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of

transactions. E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML

for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new

theory state.

* ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by

⦃ ... ⦄; additional antiquotation forms:

@{binding name} - basic name binding

@{let ?pat = term} - term abbreviation (HO matching)

@{note name = fact} - fact abbreviation

@{thm fact} - singleton fact (with attributes)

@{thms fact} - general fact (with attributes)

@{lemma prop by method} - singleton goal

@{lemma prop by meth1 meth2} - singleton goal

@{lemma prop1 ... propN by method} - general goal

@{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal

@{lemma (open) ...} - open derivation

*** System ***

* The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke

Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not

installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on

isabelle-process). The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the

installation location of the Proof General distribution.

* Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate

the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application. See

Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example. (The obsolete Java

process wrapper has been discontinued.)

* Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.

* Various status messages (with exact source position information) are

emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled. This allows

user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal

prover operations.

New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)

-------------------------------

*** General ***

* The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized

and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.

* Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the

implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in

conflict with concurrency. INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which

provides a proper context already.

* Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy

file are no longer supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and

'use' within a theory file will do the job.

* Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space

is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first

space take precedence. INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to

swap theory imports.

* Syntax: symbol χ is now considered a letter. Potential

INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.

* Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,

which was an accidental (undocumented) feature. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

white space without escapes.

* Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes

specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML). E.g. "foo\095bar" for

"foo_bar".

*** Pure ***

* Context-dependent token translations. Default setup reverts locally

fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.

* Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.

There are three ways of invoking it:

(1) unused_thms

Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.

(2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -

Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,

excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.

(3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m

Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of

their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of

their ancestors.

In order to increase the readability of the list produced by

unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance

of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered

to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in

this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer

reported as unused. Moreover, if all theorems in the group are

unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.

Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for

unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is

usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).

* Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous

theorems within the same name space. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove

duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications. Note

that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using

PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.

* Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.

* Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and

clasimpset. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear

update of theories within ML code.

* Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.

INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require

additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics

depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.

* Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on

theory/local_theory. Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'

instead. Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.

* Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class

instance operations together with an instantiation proof.

Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.

See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and

src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.

* Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only

facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the

background context (locale etc.). Affects `prop` notation and method

"fact". INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare

situations.

* Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented

"(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the

proof text.

* Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".

INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.

* Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';

hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale

predicates.

*** Document preparation ***

* Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for

both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed

obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the

spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default

value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets

"a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).

* Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given

method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method

arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.

*** HOL ***

* New primrec package. Specification syntax conforms in style to

definition/function/.... No separate induction rule is provided. The

"primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications

by syntax. The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.

When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style

primrec specifications have authentic syntax.

* Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works

with multithreading.

* Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a

theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses. Theorems that

exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.

* Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To

enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]]. Attributes

reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed

sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules

from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors

out some operations that are done internally by the function package

and makes them available separately. See

src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.

* More flexible generation of measure functions for termination

proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the

form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.

The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and

just guides the heuristic. To find suitable measure functions, the

termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate

type and generates all solutions by Prolog-style backward proof using

the declared rules.

This setup also deals with rules like

"is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"

which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.

Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.

* Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"

INCOMPATIBILITIES:

- Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by

definitions on => and bool.

- Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved

using the definitions of the operators on => and bool. Therefore,

the following theorems have been renamed:

subset_def -> subset_eq

psubset_def -> psubset_eq

set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq

Compl_def -> Compl_eq

Sup_set_def -> Sup_set_eq

Inf_set_def -> Inf_set_eq

sup_set_def -> sup_set_eq

inf_set_def -> inf_set_eq

- Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some

rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of

the unknowns in the rule is a set.

- Higher order unification and forward proofs:

The proof pattern

have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

then have "EX S. P S" ..

no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification

algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern

have "EX S. P S"

proof

show "P S" <...>

qed

- Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):

The proof pattern

have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

also have "S = T" <...>

finally have "P T" .

no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and

must be replaced by something like

have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

moreover have "S = T" <...>

ultimately have "P T" by simp

- Tactics or packages written in ML code:

Code performing pattern matching on types via

Type ("set", [T]) => ...

must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or

binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a

type of the form

T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool

rather than

T1 => ... => Tn => U set

* Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and

Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.

* Explicit class "eq" for executable equality. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter. Use class

enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"

and "Cons". INCOMPATIBILITY.

* HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.

Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and

injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.

Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of

the same name in theory Orderings:

less_trans

less_linear

le_imp_less_or_eq

le_less_trans

less_le_trans

less_not_sym

less_asym

Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to

less_irrefl_nat. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types

and different variable names.

* Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.

* Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of

finite maps.

* Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.

* Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed. The infix

operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have

disappeared. INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in

place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively. Theorems

involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"

accordingly.

* Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer

depend on well-founded relations. INCOMPATIBILITY. Definitions

le_def and less_def have disappeared. Consider lemmas not_less

[symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.

* Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin

(whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been

abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes

ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,

lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper

case_names ("base" and "step"). INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete

lattices. The form set-specific version is available as

Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.

* Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings

with division and modulo operations. Subsumes former class dvd_mod.

* Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory

Int. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural

numbers rather than integers. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class

"minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic

syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,

le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,

sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,

Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,

Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object

equality. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term

%x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.

INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.

* Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.

* Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.

* Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of

pairs. Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and

well-orders on sets and on types.

*** ZF ***

* Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the

same session:

Datatype -> Datatype_ZF

Inductive -> Inductive_ZF

Int -> Int_ZF

IntDiv -> IntDiv_ZF

Nat -> Nat_ZF

List -> List_ZF

Main -> Main_ZF

INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below

Main might need to be adapted. Regular theory Main is still

available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.

*** ML ***

* ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const

name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.

* Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact

(of the same name). Removed obsolete print command.

* Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.

* The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global

template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes

non-critical. The global print_mode reference is for session

management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,

print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external

shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML

5.2.1). Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!

*** System ***

* Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---

in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.

* isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;

optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR

setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".

* isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general

"javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.

* YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to

standard XML transfer syntax. See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and

isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.

* JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)

provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust

fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.

* Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),

based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).

* Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature. NB: the documented

way of changing the user's settings is via

ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash

script.

* Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU

cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for

optimal performance tuning. The corresponding usedir option -M allows

"max" as an alias for "0". WARNING: does not work on certain versions

of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).

* isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the

adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably

ProofGeneral / XEmacs).

New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)

-----------------------------------

*** General ***

* More uniform information about legacy features, notably a

warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the

tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:

legacy features will disappear eventually.

* Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been

discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''. Use isatool

fixheaders to convert existing theory files. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been

discontinued altogether. Note that ML proof scripts may still be used

with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML

function use_legacy_bindings. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',

'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords. INCOMPATIBILITY, use double

quotes.

* Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory

header specifications (including optional directories), but not the

accidental file locations of previously successful loads. The strict

update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by

use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several

theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header

specification, but without merging the results. Potential

INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands

ROOT.ML which depend on load order.

* Theory loader: optional support for content-based file

identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical

path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting

(cf. the system manual). The new scheme allows to work with

non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source

files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.

* Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy

file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy

feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader

no longer maintains dependencies on such files.

* Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is

now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous

specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the

syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and

type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit

'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.

* Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',

'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in

``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations

really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space

ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse

trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax

translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and

@{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.

* Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required

to keep existing proof scripts running. Most other user-level

functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open

by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).

Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because

these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being

used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().

* Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"

criterion; "with_dups" option. Certain ProofGeneral versions might

support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).

* The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1

by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are

suppressed from proof state output. Note that the ProofGeneral

settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but

older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems

limit is imposed.

* Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of

``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''. The body may

contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism

that has been implemented on top of these primitives. This concept

generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility

and scalability.

* Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;

discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).

*** Document preparation ***

* Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,

after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the

current context.

* Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which

check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.

* Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation

"c args == rhs" given in the current context. (Any number of

arguments may be given on the LHS.)

*** Pure ***

* The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to

achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle. Definitions and

theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with

implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic

constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class

context). Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate

syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting

between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.

See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).

"isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.

* Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable

code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes). A short usage

sketch:

internal compilation:

export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML

writing SML code to a file:

export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>

writing OCaml code to a file:

export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>

writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:

export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>

evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:

method ``eval''

Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.

Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:

[code fun]: select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

[code fun del]: deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

[code inline]: select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

[code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):

code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>

{(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+

code_type <and-list of type constructors>

{(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+

code_instance <and-list of instances>

{(target)}+

where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>

code_class <and_list of classes>

{(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+

where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?

code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.

For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and

src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy. A separate tutorial on code

generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc

codegen".

* Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now

referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type

annotations).

* Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory

syntax.

* Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic

dependencies. The overloading scheme is slightly more general than

that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact

correspondence to type class and instance declarations.

INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more

exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!

Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the

instantiation that matches an instance against the most general

declaration given in the signature. For example, with the declaration

c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented

as c(nat). Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural

recursion over such type arguments. Incomplete specification patterns

impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the

LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.

Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive

equations, see section "definitions".

* Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof

context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple

interface to a poor-man's version of general context data. Tools may

declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to

these values using Config.get etc. Users may change options via an

associated attribute of the same name. This form of context

declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or

'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''. Thus it has become

very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar

toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.

Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into

configuration options:

Unify.search_bound unify_search_bound

Unify.trace_bound unify_trace_bound

Unify.trace_simp unify_trace_simp

Unify.trace_types unify_trace_types

Simplifier.simp_depth_limit simp_depth_limit

Blast.depth_limit blast_depth_limit

DatatypeProp.dtK datatype_distinctness_limit

fast_arith_neq_limit fast_arith_neq_limit

fast_arith_split_limit fast_arith_split_limit

* Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context

data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also

src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML). The user may add or delete facts via

attributes; there is also a toplevel print command. This facility is

just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way

for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical

order.

* Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic

declaration functions written in ML. This enables arbitrary content

being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the

difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application

context encountered later on.

* Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures. Command

'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body

text in ML). Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current

context. ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.

* Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations

abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,

which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on

the background context will persist. This form of in-place

declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and

'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.

* Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now

takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying

an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic

assumption steps. This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'

goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",

without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the

Isar proof context. POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is

more permissive.

* Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is

considered a legacy feature. Common applications like ``have A .''

may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''. In general,

referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and

maintainability of proof texts.

* Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives

the obtained context from the course of reasoning! For example:

assume "EX x y. A x & B y" -- "any previous fact"

then guess x and y by clarify

This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and

proof tools being involved here.

* Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal

propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax. This works wherever

named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof

methods, attributes etc. Literal facts are retrieved from the context

according to unification of type and term parameters. For example,

provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known

theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:

`A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.

There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition

for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with

certain special cases of literal facts:

have "A" by fact == note `A`

have "A ==> B" by fact == note `A ==> B`

have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact == note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`

have "P a ==> Q a" by fact == note `P a ==> Q a`

* Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in

outer syntax. Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without

additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.

* Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,

both named and unnamed ones.

* Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:

def x == "t" and y == "u"

* Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to

'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given

rewrite rules. Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or

'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.

* Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',

and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities

(potentially conditional). The underlying notion of rewrite rule is

analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the

Simplifier (which is usually more generous).

* Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the

premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.

* Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a

method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N

sub-goals, which need to exist. For example, ``simp_all [3]''

simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]

simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the

originally first one.

* Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order

patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as

expected.

* Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either

'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'

(essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and

assumptions). The latter allows to express general elimination rules

adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:

lemma exE: -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

assumes "EX x. P x"

obtains x where "P x"

lemma conjE: -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

assumes "A & B"

obtains A and B

lemma disjE: -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

assumes "A | B"

obtains

A

| B

The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"

explicitly:

lemma classical: -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

obtains "~ thesis"

lemma Peirce's_Law: -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

obtains "thesis ==> something"

The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the

Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.

Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be

available both in the present proof and as annotations in the

resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute

case_names).

* Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as

"assms" fact in the proof context. This is more appropriate than the

(historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current

context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.

* Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or

proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a

top-level lemma.

* Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context

introduction rule (default "that").

* Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens

to occur.

* Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant

according to the current context. This is particularly useful for

syntax translations that should refer to internal constant

representations independently of name spaces.

* Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"

instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist

in the same context. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'

primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and

fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation

of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the

'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the

current context.

* Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',

'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit

object-level specifications (equality, equivalence). See also the

isar-ref manual. Examples:

axiomatization

eq (infix "===" 50) where

eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"

definition "f x y = x + y + 1"

definition g where "g x = f x x"

abbreviation

neq (infix "=!=" 50) where

"x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"

These specifications may be also used in a locale context. Then the

constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the

constant name is qualified by the locale base name. An internal

abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the

parameters implicit and using the original short name. See also

src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic

entities from a monomorphic theory.

Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but

not inherited by general import expressions. Also note that

'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +

'translations' in common applications. The "no_abbrevs" print mode

prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.

Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,

independently of name spaces. The parse tree representation is

slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and

'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.

* Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms

(e.g. 'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits

full type inference and dummy patterns ("_"). For example:

definition "K x _ = x"

inductive conj for A B

where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"

* Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of

the current context. Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of

abbreviations on output.

* Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and

"struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer

required to be injective. For example, this allows to define

endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.

* Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.

Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is

now an interpretation. INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of

locale expressions. In particular, in interpretations of locales with

predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not

removed automatically. Use methods `intro_locales' and

`unfold_locales'; see below.

* Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'

provide backward reasoning on locales predicates. The methods are

aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.

`intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not

unfold predicates to assumptions.

* Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated

has changed. This enables to override declarations from fragments due

to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.

* Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been

extended. One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are

unfolded in interpreted theorems. This is useful for replacing

defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by

concepts already existing in the target context. Example:

interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]

where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"

Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a

definition specification element in the context of locale

partial_order.

* Method "induct": improved internal context management to support

local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level

connectives !! and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals

(using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long

obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in

src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also

src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic

examples.

* Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of

introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into

several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested

accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,

see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.

* Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list

of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide

foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive

predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify

mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:

(induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)

(induct set: foo bar)

(induct pred: foo bar)

(induct type: foo bar)

The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the

new format.

* Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see

src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.

* Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is

considered a legacy feature.

* Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic

variables (index 0). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level

rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by

default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The

trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.

* Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format

attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when

manipulating the claset.

* Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,

dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at

least one premise.

* Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional

weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions). Weights are

ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single

rule steps.

* Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",

where the body does not mention the bound variable. Note that dummy

patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes

"{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected. Potential

INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic

constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.

* Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated

parse translation. INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,

for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".

* Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using

the graph browser tool.

* Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by

default; use '!' option for full details.

*** HOL ***

* Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose

resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).

Examples are in the directory MetisExamples. WARNING: the

Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with

multi-threading.

* Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as

background processes. It generates calls to the "metis" method if

successful. These can be pasted into the proof. Users do not have to

wait for the automatic provers to return. WARNING: does not really

work with multi-threading.

* New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for

potential counter-examples. Controlled by ML references

auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default

5000 milliseconds). Fails silently if statements is outside of

executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.

* New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".

* Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic

equality.

* Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in

the new 'class' package:

HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs

HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide

0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero

1 ~> HOL.one_class.one

op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus

op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus

uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus

op * ~> HOL.times_class.times

op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less

op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq

Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power

Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size

Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of

FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf

FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup

Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min

Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max

Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div

Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod

Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd

INCOMPATIBILITY. Adaptions may be required in the following cases:

a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",

"times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for

"+", "-" and "*" may go wrong. INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific

names.

b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"

INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.

c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")

Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative

rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows

that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle

distribution). INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs

d) ML code directly refering to constant names

This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and

so on. INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.

Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.

* New class "default" with associated constant "default".

* Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex

(and other numeric types), using class "sgn". Two possible defs of

sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and

sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory

Orderings), added parameter "less". INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and

"cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid

clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans". INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to

changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.

* The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up

for classes "order" and "linorder". Instances of the reasoner are available

in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.

Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner

is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver. Diagnostic

command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner

in the current context.

* Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated

lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration

with new class dense_linear_order.

* Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.

constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"

constant "Meet" now named "Inf"

classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named

"lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"

class "lorder" now named "lattice"

class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"

Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions

for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).

INCOMPATIBILITY. Theorem renames:

meet_left_le ~> inf_le1

meet_right_le ~> inf_le2

join_left_le ~> sup_ge1

join_right_le ~> sup_ge2

meet_join_le ~> inf_sup_ord

le_meetI ~> le_infI

join_leI ~> le_supI

le_meet ~> le_inf_iff

le_join ~> ge_sup_conv

meet_idempotent ~> inf_idem

join_idempotent ~> sup_idem

meet_comm ~> inf_commute

join_comm ~> sup_commute

meet_leI1 ~> le_infI1

meet_leI2 ~> le_infI2

le_joinI1 ~> le_supI1

le_joinI2 ~> le_supI2

meet_assoc ~> inf_assoc

join_assoc ~> sup_assoc

meet_left_comm ~> inf_left_commute

meet_left_idempotent ~> inf_left_idem

join_left_comm ~> sup_left_commute

join_left_idempotent ~> sup_left_idem

meet_aci ~> inf_aci

join_aci ~> sup_aci

le_def_meet ~> le_iff_inf

le_def_join ~> le_iff_sup

join_absorp2 ~> sup_absorb2

join_absorp1 ~> sup_absorb1

meet_absorp1 ~> inf_absorb1

meet_absorp2 ~> inf_absorb2

meet_join_absorp ~> inf_sup_absorb

join_meet_absorp ~> sup_inf_absorb

distrib_join_le ~> distrib_sup_le

distrib_meet_le ~> distrib_inf_le

add_meet_distrib_left ~> add_inf_distrib_left

add_join_distrib_left ~> add_sup_distrib_left

is_join_neg_meet ~> is_join_neg_inf

is_meet_neg_join ~> is_meet_neg_sup

add_meet_distrib_right ~> add_inf_distrib_right

add_join_distrib_right ~> add_sup_distrib_right

add_meet_join_distribs ~> add_sup_inf_distribs

join_eq_neg_meet ~> sup_eq_neg_inf

meet_eq_neg_join ~> inf_eq_neg_sup

add_eq_meet_join ~> add_eq_inf_sup

meet_0_imp_0 ~> inf_0_imp_0

join_0_imp_0 ~> sup_0_imp_0

meet_0_eq_0 ~> inf_0_eq_0

join_0_eq_0 ~> sup_0_eq_0

neg_meet_eq_join ~> neg_inf_eq_sup

neg_join_eq_meet ~> neg_sup_eq_inf

join_eq_if ~> sup_eq_if

mono_meet ~> mono_inf

mono_join ~> mono_sup

meet_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_eq

join_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_eq

meet_fun_eq ~> inf_fun_eq

join_fun_eq ~> sup_fun_eq

meet_set_eq ~> inf_set_eq

join_set_eq ~> sup_set_eq

meet1_iff ~> inf1_iff

meet2_iff ~> inf2_iff

meet1I ~> inf1I

meet2I ~> inf2I

meet1D1 ~> inf1D1

meet2D1 ~> inf2D1

meet1D2 ~> inf1D2

meet2D2 ~> inf2D2

meet1E ~> inf1E

meet2E ~> inf2E

join1_iff ~> sup1_iff

join2_iff ~> sup2_iff

join1I1 ~> sup1I1

join2I1 ~> sup2I1

join1I1 ~> sup1I1

join2I2 ~> sup1I2

join1CI ~> sup1CI

join2CI ~> sup2CI

join1E ~> sup1E

join2E ~> sup2E

is_meet_Meet ~> is_meet_Inf

Meet_bool_def ~> Inf_bool_def

Meet_fun_def ~> Inf_fun_def

Meet_greatest ~> Inf_greatest

Meet_lower ~> Inf_lower

Meet_set_def ~> Inf_set_def

Sup_def ~> Sup_Inf

Sup_bool_eq ~> Sup_bool_def

Sup_fun_eq ~> Sup_fun_def

Sup_set_eq ~> Sup_set_def

listsp_meetI ~> listsp_infI

listsp_meet_eq ~> listsp_inf_eq

meet_min ~> inf_min

join_max ~> sup_max

* Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has

type "'a::size ==> bool"

* Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems

"foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still

simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named

"*.size".

* Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,

Linorder etc. have disappeared; operations defined in terms of

fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size

machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating

operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for

linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including

lemmas on overflow and monotonicity. Instantiated to all appropriate

arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of

numerals on all operations.

* Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.

* Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).

* Code generator library theories:

- Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target

languages.

- Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target

languages.

- Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character

codes; includes Code_Integer.

- Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.

- Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,

denominator).

- Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those

representable by rational numbers.

- Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will

result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;

includes Code_Integer.

- Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to

target-language built-in integers.

- Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to

strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.

* New package for inductive predicates

An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via

inductive

p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

where

rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

| ...

with full support for type-inference, rather than

consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"

intros

rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

...

For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive

sets to be defined with the new package via

inductive_set

s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

where

rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

| ...

or

inductive_set

s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

where

"p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

| rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

| ...

if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.

Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,

src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.

INCOMPATIBILITIES:

- Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates

is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly

introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the

introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather

than before the actual inductive definition.

- The variables in induction and elimination rules are now

quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction

rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break

some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by

reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'

statements of the form

case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})

or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding

meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.

| rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"

- The format of the elimination rules is now

p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>

(!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

==> ... ==> P

for predicates and

(x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

(!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

==> ... ==> P

for sets rather than

x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

(!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)

==> ... ==> P

This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples

(e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all

rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.

- The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive

sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The

list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.

* New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,

supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,

more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy

for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function

package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but

users are encouraged to use the new package.

* Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination

relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.

* Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including

"_") and take their order into account, like in functional

programming. Internally, this is translated into nested

case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined

constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show

the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow

the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an

abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new

variable.

* IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"

is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification

rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did

previously. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:

- "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"

- of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules

* Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using

Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the

tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for

a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding

declarations for computation on the coefficients. The method is

already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class

of idoms with numerals. See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at

CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this

architecture of context-aware proof-tools.

* Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over

special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to

"algebra"). The method is already installed for class

{ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,

rat, etc.

* Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append". Use ML

antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to

circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.

* primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".

* New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.

Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)

* New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.

[(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.

* The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :

xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list

comprehension syntax, and for uniformity. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders. It used to be

defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD" to "set_takeWhileD".

* New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.

* New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for

manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all

denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or

positive/negative (in inequations).

* Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib

have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and

ring_distribs. Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field

because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function

package; constants add, mul, pow now curried. Infix syntax for

algebraic operations.

* Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the

field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update

(K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.

INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be

adapted.

* Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0

* x = 0, which are required for a semiring. Richer structures do not

inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem

there, not an axiom. INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,

there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.

* Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just

commutative semirings. INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate

commutativity or semiring properties additionally.

* Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.

INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,

better use 'abbreviation'.

* Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member". INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has

been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'. INCOMPATIBILITY --

significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:

- New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead

of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.

- Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.

- Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.

- ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.

See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.

* Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may

contain free variables. For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''

produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof). This command is suitable for

heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML

first. Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided. See

further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.

* Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority

25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is

"A = B" (with priority 50).

* Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.

Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,

e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z". Potential

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).

* Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds

stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been

removed. Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.

* In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites

"t = s" to False (by simproc "neq"). INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using

``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.

* Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to

True/False.

* Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".

* Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.

* Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the

``rule'' method.

* Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:

goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences

(i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form

"lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.

* Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.

zChaff is still supported as well.

* 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,

bundled as foo_bar.inducts;

* Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to

Library.

* Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.

* Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists

as greatest fixed-point.

* Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as

association lists.

* Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)

efficiently by compiling it to ML. The goal is "proved" (via an

oracle) if it evaluates to True.

* Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)

also when invoked by the simplifier. This results in the Simplifier

being more powerful on arithmetic goals. INCOMPATIBILITY.

Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old

behavior.

* Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.

* New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an

interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional

parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the

theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The

resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs

s. If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.

* New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)

are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,

where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code

generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then

applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =

r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the

subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.

* Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is

available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy

* HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a

command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an

abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of

HOL types. This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,

in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.

*** HOL-Complex ***

* Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real

inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.

Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so

that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and

algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a

and norm :: 'a => real.

* Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from

reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now

defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.

Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.

* Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the

reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector

spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential

INCOMPATIBILITY.

Infinitesimal :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

HFinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

HInfinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

approx :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool

monad :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

galaxy :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

(NS)LIMSEQ :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

(NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

(NS)Bseq :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

(NS)Cauchy :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

(NS)LIM :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool

is(NS)Cont :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

deriv :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool

sgn :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a

exp :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a

* Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for

overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =

hnorm. Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the

polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

approx <-- capprox

HFinite <-- CFinite

HInfinite <-- CInfinite

Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal

monad <-- cmonad

galaxy <-- cgalaxy

(NS)LIM <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM

is(NS)Cont <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR

(ns)deriv <-- (ns)cderiv

*** HOL-Algebra ***

* Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.

* Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->

greatest_closed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Method algebra is now set up via an attribute. For examples see

Ring.thy. INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations

of algebraic structures.

* Renamed theory CRing to Ring.

*** HOL-Nominal ***

* Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding

structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic. See src/HOL/Nominal and

src/HOL/Nominal/Examples. Prospective users should consult

http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/

*** ML ***

* ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int

(even on SML/NJ).

* ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked

formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at

compile-time. For example:

ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}

ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}

ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}

ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}

ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}

ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}

ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}

ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}

ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}

ML {* @{type_name c} *}

ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}

ML {* @{const_name c} *}

ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}

ML {* @{context} *}

ML {* @{theory} *}

ML {* @{theory Pure} *}

ML {* @{theory_ref} *}

ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}

ML {* @{simpset} *}

ML {* @{claset} *}

ML {* @{clasimpset} *}

The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.

* ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with

ML_Context.trace enabled.

* Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions

DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and

admits slightly more efficient complex applications.

* Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now

use Context.generic instead of just theory.

* Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and

provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of

context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.

* Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always

Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.

local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while

minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and

Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure

Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably

GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type

declarations and definitions.

* Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed

name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,

init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need

to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)

* Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in

signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the

logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,

potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with

explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed

internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --

notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and

AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede

Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.

* Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --

global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been

discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted

accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for

attributes, methods, etc.

* Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."

have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to

allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and

fold_map combinators.

* Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional

comments (tags) are now strictly separate. Name hints -- which are

maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the

derivation.

* Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an

actual goal state (thm). Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to

achieve the old behaviour.

* Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a

slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule

statements.

* Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now

enforced instead of silently assumed. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use

Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.

* Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating

internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc. This replaces

some popular functions from term.ML:

Term.variant -> Name.variant

Term.variantlist -> Name.variant_list

Term.invent_names -> Name.invent_list

Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations

from structure Variable are used instead (see below).

* Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper

treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context. For example,

Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and

Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces

various freeze_thaw operations.

* Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for

init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former

Tactic.prove). Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results

within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for

theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard. Note that

OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is

ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or

in a locale context).

* Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)

and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations

(Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.

which are considered legacy and await removal.

* Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking

(Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),

with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term

etc.). Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still

available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using

a mere theory instead of a full context.

* Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception

ERROR of string uniformly. Function error now merely raises ERROR,

without any side effect on output channels. The Isar toplevel takes

care of proper display of ERROR exceptions. ML code may use plain

handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:

... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."

Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be

embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like

this:

Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)

INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed

obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,

Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)

-- use plain ERROR instead.

* Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a

list. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.

* Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to

ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.

* Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the

theory before entering a proof state. Transactions now always see a

quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and

batch mode.

* Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax. Renamed

OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords. Removed

OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in

OuterSyntax.command etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now

contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the

very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by

simpset_of/local_simpset_of). Consequently, all plug-in components

(solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.

* Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the

local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc

etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this! Removed

former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --

INCOMPATIBILITY. Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to

specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.

* Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces

change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a

theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired

"Trueprop" etc.

*** System ***

* settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now

includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER. This simplifies use of multiple

Isabelle installations.

* isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical

operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source

code.

* Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.

* Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of

Poly/ML 5.1. The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing

independent theories, according to the given theory header

specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via

usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A

speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up

to 6 on a 8-core machine. User-code needs to observe certain

guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar

Implementation manual.

New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)

----------------------------------

*** General ***

* Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is

theory <name>

imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>

uses <file1> ... <fileM>

begin

where the 'uses' part is optional. The previous syntax

theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:

will disappear in the next release. Use isatool fixheaders to convert

existing theory files. Note that there is no change in ancient

non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.

* Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via

relative and absolute paths.

* Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a

list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,

simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select

theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that

match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified

name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose

lhs match term. Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects

all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under

'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f. Example:

C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."

prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",

matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."

in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).

* Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of

'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that

Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both

formal and informal parts). Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof

General interface. Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):

http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html

http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html

* Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the

Classical Reasoner. Typical big applications run around 2 times

faster.

*** Document preparation ***

* Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output

of raw sources. Only those symbols that do not require additional

LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are

displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim. isatool display

and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the

DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).

* Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,

notably folding and hiding. Predefined tags include "theory" (for

theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for

commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and

"invisible" are unused by default. Users may give explicit tag

specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''. The

interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document

preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of

isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,

\isadroptag.

Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool

usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them). Typical

specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present

theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold

proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit

these parts without any formal replacement text. The Isabelle site

default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as

specified above.

* Several new antiquotations:

@{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;

@{typeof term} prints the type of a term;

@{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the

argument is a known logical constant;

@{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or

theorem applying a "style" to it

@{ML text}

Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of

definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the

conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'

to print the specified premise. TermStyle.add_style provides an ML

interface for introducing further styles. See also the "LaTeX Sugar"

document practical applications. The ML antiquotation prints

type-checked ML expressions verbatim.

* Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',

and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which

specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations. For

example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.

* Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative

context interpreting the subsequent argument. For example: @{thm

[locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.

* Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within

a proof context.

* Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a

proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').

* Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX

macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).

* isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option

-D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false

prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.

*** Pure ***

* Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command. Now performs

automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for

local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also

isar-ref manual. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly

sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'

section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier. If

all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.

* Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures. First of all,

indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted

application, using the new syntax ⇘term⇙ for arbitrary

expressions. Secondly, in a local context with structure

declarations, number indexes_{n}or the empty index (default

number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option

show_structs controls printing of implicit structures. Typical

applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.

* New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and

translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is

interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.

* 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend

on the signature of the theory context being presently used for

parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.

* Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an

ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of

type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle

is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;

INCOMPATIBILITY.

* axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"

before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.

INCOMPATIBILITY. This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for

axclasses vs. locales.

* Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes

instead of base 26 numbers.

* New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question

marks in schematic variable names.

* In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or

\<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name. For example, the

following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:

lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"

by simp

* Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).

* Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix

annotations as "(00...)".

* Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter

may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.

Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class

"logic" vs. "{}". Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper

use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'. Some very

exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption

(e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).

* Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.

Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'

rather than 'types'. INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic

specifications.

* Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be

locally fixed variables as well.

* Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting

is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth

Limit.

* Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current

simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc

interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier

recursively. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs

is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead. Moreover, the

low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to

allow for use in a context of fixed variables.

* thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!

or ==>. More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of

the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.

* Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived

from Pure, which contains all common declarations already. Both

theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.

INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /

CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;

use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.

* New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific

selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.

* 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference

wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),

in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');

* 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.

* More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive

theory development.

* Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code

generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures

for each theory). INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'

must be quoted when used as identifiers.

* New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using

the code generator. INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be

quoted when used as identifier.

*** Locales ***

* New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in

theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3). These generate

proof obligations from the expression specification. After the

obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added

to the theory, target locale or proof context. The synopsis of the

commands is a follows:

(1) interpretation expr inst

(2) interpretation target < expr

(3) interpret expr inst

Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter

instantiation of terms from the current context. This is applied to

specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.

Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the

locale expression. Interpretation is smart in that interpretations

that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are

instantiated theorems stored in duplicate. Use 'print_interps' to

inspect active interpretations of a particular locale. For details,

see the Isar Reference manual. Examples can be found in

HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.

INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use

'interpret' instead.

* New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to

parameters.

* Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax

redeclaration.

* Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.

* Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /

facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition

context, independently of the context of later invocations. Moreover,

locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied

to attribute arguments as expected.

INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of

actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to

embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.

Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static

binding mechanism. Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and

Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further

intervention. Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"

(cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both

on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed

values to argument tokens explicitly.

* Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal

statements with 'includes'. INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different

theorem statement in rare situations.

* Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements. Use

'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.

*** Provers ***

* Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for

single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is

'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption. INCOMPATIBILITY: may

rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is

still available as 'simplesubst'.

* Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only

and quasi orders.

* Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and

reflexive-transitive closure of relations.

* Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth

limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.

* Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup

is peformed already. Object-logics merely need to finish their

initial simpset configuration as before. INCOMPATIBILITY.

*** HOL ***

* Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:

syntax (epsilon)

"_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a" ("(3ϵ_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)

The symbol ϵ is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX

and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.

Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier ε

becomes available as variable, constant etc. INCOMPATIBILITY,

* "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".

Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc. The x-symbol for >=

is ≥. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to

support corresponding Isar calculations.

* "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "∈"

instead of ":".

* theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:

Old New

{..n(} {..<n}

{)n..} {n<..}

{m..n(} {m..<n}

{)m..n} {m<..n}

{)m..n(} {m<..<n}

The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next

release. For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace

patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):

{)\([^\.]*\)\.\. -> {\1<\.\.}

\.\.\([^(}]*\)(} -> \.\.<\1}

* Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving

equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic

interface.

* Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over

finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "∑x:A. e", is

now either "SUM x:A. e" or "∑x ∈ A. e". The bound variable can

be a tuple pattern.

Some new syntax forms are available:

"∑x | P. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"

"∑x = a..b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"

"∑x = a..<b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"

"∑x < k. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"

The latter form "∑x < k. e" used to be based on a separate

function "Summation", which has been discontinued.

* theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case

is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case

(insert F x)'.

* The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger

fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and

typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.

* New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.

Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed. See

HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.

* Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the

induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by

induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather

than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY

in unstructured proof scripts.

* Reworked implementation of records. Improved scalability for

records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type

inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but

of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear

in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields. The

top-level (users) view on records is preserved. Potential

INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the

old record representation. The type generated for a record is called

<record_name>_ext_type.

Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the

proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if

quick_and_dirty is enabled). Definitions of large records can take

quite long.

New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record

updates enabled by default. Moreover, trivial updates are also

removed: r(|x := x r|) = r. INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break

occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.

* typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra

type-variables in the term.

* Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains

involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics

provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers. INCOMPATIBILITY:

old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more

goals than previously.

* Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is

present. Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular

numbers and sets. For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y

just like y <= x.

* Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x". If a is a free or

bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded. Otherwise

first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If

possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",

otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g. The simproc can be

enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc. Potential

INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.

* Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.

* Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background

jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.

* Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and

improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and

inequalities.

The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

(INCOMPATIBILITY):

abs_eq now named abs_of_nonneg

abs_of_ge_0 now named abs_of_nonneg

abs_minus_eq now named abs_of_nonpos

imp_abs_id now named abs_of_nonneg

imp_abs_neg_id now named abs_of_nonpos

mult_pos now named mult_pos_pos

mult_pos_le now named mult_nonneg_nonneg

mult_pos_neg_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos

mult_pos_neg2_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2

mult_neg now named mult_neg_neg

mult_neg_le now named mult_nonpos_nonpos

* The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:

zero_le_square

not_square_less_zero

The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:

realpow_zero_zero

realpow_two

realpow_less

zero_le_power

realpow_two_le

abs_realpow_two

realpow_two_abs

* Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.

* Theory List:

The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

(INCOMPATIBILITY):

list_all_Nil now named list_all.simps(1)

list_all_Cons now named list_all.simps(2)

list_all_conv now named list_all_iff

set_mem_eq now named mem_iff

* Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support

asymptotic "big O" calculations. See the notes in BigO.thy.

*** HOL-Complex ***

* Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and

integers in the reals.

The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

(INCOMPATIBILITY):

exp_ge_add_one_self now requires no hypotheses

real_of_int_add reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

real_of_int_minus reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

real_of_int_diff reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

real_of_int_mult reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

* Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.

* Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm

* Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making

nonstandard types. The old type names are now type synonyms:

hypreal = real star

hypnat = nat star

hcomplex = complex star

* Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been

replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex

starset <-- starsetNat, starsetC

*s* <-- *sNat*, *sc*

starset_n <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n

*sn* <-- *sNatn*, *scn*

InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets

starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

*f* <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*

starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n

*fn* <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*

InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs

* Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of

theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):

add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute

add_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs

OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left

OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right

right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus

left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left

mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute

mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc

mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left

mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right

mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left

left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib

right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2

zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one

right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse

left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left

order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl

order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans

order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym

order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le

linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear

add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono

mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2

add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order

* Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific

versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the

new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):

STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set

STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set

STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un

STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int

STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl

STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset

STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem

STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl

STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff

STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,

STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset

starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un

starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int

starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl

starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff

InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un

InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int

InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl

InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff

InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff

InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n

starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq

starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}

starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult

starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add

starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus

starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff

starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o

starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2

starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun

starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse

starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq

starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff

starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id

starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx

starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox

starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs

starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel

starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2

starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox

starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox

starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox

starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx

starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse

starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide

starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n

starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult

starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add

starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus

starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun

starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus

starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq

star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add

star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus

star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff

star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult

star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse

star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le

star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less

star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num

star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num

star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs

star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide

star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add

star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus

star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff

star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult

star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one

star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero

star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff

star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff

star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff

star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse

star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide

star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat

star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int

star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of

star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff

star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff

star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff

star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff

star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff

star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power

star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff

* Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer

principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions

nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"

replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.

To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-

standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.

* Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.

*** HOLCF ***

* Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support

continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full

type-inference.

* New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it

is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic

instead of exponential time).

* New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.

Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:

domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")

* New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern

matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also

supported. Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,

sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given

equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

syntax and examples.

* New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes

of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,

but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility

requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,

with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.

* HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming

scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):

foo_inject: "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"

foo_eq: "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"

foo_less: "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"

foo_strict: "foo$UU = UU"

foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"

foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"

*** ZF ***

* ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,

including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel

of a homomorphism).

* ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually

makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);

the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.

*** Cube ***

* Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic

theories.

*** ML ***

* Pure/library.ML: added ##>, ##>>, #>> -- higher-order counterparts

for ||>, ||>>, |>>,

* Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses

that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of

None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.

The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted

accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.

* Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of

the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as

Library.UnequalLengths. Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are

superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.

A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML

toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions. The following

suggests how one can translate existing code:

rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)

nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)

last_elem xs = List.last xs

flat xss = List.concat xss

seq fs = List.app fs

partition P xs = List.partition P xs

mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs

* Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional

transformations, notably reverse application and composition:

x |> f f #> g

(x, y) |-> f f #-> g

* Pure/library.ML: introduced/changed precedence of infix operators:

infix 1 |> |-> ||> ||>> |>> |>>> #> #->;

infix 2 ?;

infix 3 o oo ooo oooo;

infix 4 ~~ upto downto;

Maybe INCOMPATIBILITY when any of those is used in conjunction with other

infix operators.

* Pure/library.ML: natural list combinators fold, fold_rev, and

fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting. For

example:

fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =

y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN

(fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =

y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN

fold f [x1, ..., xN] =

f x1 #> ... #> f xN

(fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =

fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN

* Pure/library.ML: the following selectors on type 'a option are

available:

the: 'a option -> 'a (*partial*)

these: 'a option -> 'a where 'a = 'b list

the_default: 'a -> 'a option -> 'a

the_list: 'a option -> 'a list

* Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides

basic operations for association lists, following natural argument

order; moreover the explicit equality predicate passed here avoids

potentially expensive polymorphic runtime equality checks.

The old functions may be expressed as follows:

assoc = uncurry (AList.lookup (op =))

assocs = these oo AList.lookup (op =)

overwrite = uncurry (AList.update (op =)) o swap

* Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides

val make: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list

val find: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('c * 'b) list -> 'a -> 'c list

replacing make_keylist and keyfilter (occassionally used)

Naive rewrites:

make_keylist = AList.make

keyfilter = AList.find (op =)

* eq_fst and eq_snd now take explicit equality parameter, thus

avoiding eqtypes. Naive rewrites:

eq_fst = eq_fst (op =)

eq_snd = eq_snd (op =)

* Removed deprecated apl and apr (rarely used).

Naive rewrites:

apl (n, op) =>>= curry op n

apr (op, m) =>>= fn n => op (n, m)

* Pure/General: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML)

provides a reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as

lists.

* Pure/General: generic tables (cf. Pure/General/table.ML) provide a

few new operations; existing lookup and update are now curried to

follow natural argument order (for use with fold etc.);

INCOMPATIBILITY, use (uncurry Symtab.lookup) etc. as last resort.

* Pure/General: output via the Isabelle channels of

writeln/warning/error etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a

hook for arbitrary transformations depending on the print_mode

(cf. Output.add_mode -- the first active mode that provides a output

function wins). Already formatted output may be embedded into further

text via Output.raw; the result of Pretty.string_of/str_of and derived

functions (string_of_term/cterm/thm etc.) is already marked raw to

accommodate easy composition of diagnostic messages etc. Programmers

rarely need to care about Output.output or Output.raw at all, with

some notable exceptions: Output.output is required when bypassing the

standard channels (writeln etc.), or in token translations to produce

properly formatted results; Output.raw is required when capturing

already output material that will eventually be presented to the user

a second time. For the default print mode, both Output.output and

Output.raw have no effect.

* Pure/General: Output.time_accumulator NAME creates an operator ('a

-> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b to measure runtime and count invocations; the

cumulative results are displayed at the end of a batch session.

* Pure/General: File.sysify_path and File.quote_sysify path have been

replaced by File.platform_path and File.shell_path (with appropriate

hooks). This provides a clean interface for unusual systems where the

internal and external process view of file names are different.

* Pure: more efficient orders for basic syntactic entities: added

fast_string_ord, fast_indexname_ord, fast_term_ord; changed sort_ord

and typ_ord to use fast_string_ord and fast_indexname_ord (term_ord is

NOT affected); structures Symtab, Vartab, Typtab, Termtab use the fast

orders now -- potential INCOMPATIBILITY for code that depends on a

particular order for Symtab.keys, Symtab.dest, etc. (consider using

Library.sort_strings on result).

* Pure/term.ML: combinators fold_atyps, fold_aterms, fold_term_types,

fold_types traverse types/terms from left to right, observing natural

argument order. Supercedes previous foldl_XXX versions, add_frees,

add_vars etc. have been adapted as well: INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Pure: name spaces have been refined, with significant changes of the

internal interfaces -- INCOMPATIBILITY. Renamed cond_extern(_table)

to extern(_table). The plain name entry path is superceded by a

general 'naming' context, which also includes the 'policy' to produce

a fully qualified name and external accesses of a fully qualified

name; NameSpace.extend is superceded by context dependent

Sign.declare_name. Several theory and proof context operations modify

the naming context. Especially note Theory.restore_naming and

ProofContext.restore_naming to get back to a sane state; note that

Theory.add_path is no longer sufficient to recover from

Theory.absolute_path in particular.

* Pure: new flags short_names (default false) and unique_names

(default true) for controlling output of qualified names. If

short_names is set, names are printed unqualified. If unique_names is

reset, the name prefix is reduced to the minimum required to achieve

the original result when interning again, even if there is an overlap

with earlier declarations.

* Pure/TheoryDataFun: change of the argument structure; 'prep_ext' is

now 'extend', and 'merge' gets an additional Pretty.pp argument

(useful for printing error messages). INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Pure: major reorganization of the theory context. Type Sign.sg and

Theory.theory are now identified, referring to the universal

Context.theory (see Pure/context.ML). Actual signature and theory

content is managed as theory data. The old code and interfaces were

spread over many files and structures; the new arrangement introduces

considerable INCOMPATIBILITY to gain more clarity:

Context -- theory management operations (name, identity, inclusion,

parents, ancestors, merge, etc.), plus generic theory data;

Sign -- logical signature and syntax operations (declaring consts,

types, etc.), plus certify/read for common entities;

Theory -- logical theory operations (stating axioms, definitions,

oracles), plus a copy of logical signature operations (consts,

types, etc.); also a few basic management operations (Theory.copy,

Theory.merge, etc.)

The most basic sign_of operations (Theory.sign_of, Thm.sign_of_thm

etc.) as well as the sign field in Thm.rep_thm etc. have been retained

for convenience -- they merely return the theory.

* Pure: type Type.tsig is superceded by theory in most interfaces.

* Pure: the Isar proof context type is already defined early in Pure

as Context.proof (note that ProofContext.context and Proof.context are

aliases, where the latter is the preferred name). This enables other

Isabelle components to refer to that type even before Isar is present.

* Pure/sign/theory: discontinued named name spaces (i.e. classK,

typeK, constK, axiomK, oracleK), but provide explicit operations for

any of these kinds. For example, Sign.intern typeK is now

Sign.intern_type, Theory.hide_space Sign.typeK is now

Theory.hide_types. Also note that former

Theory.hide_classes/types/consts are now

Theory.hide_classes_i/types_i/consts_i, while the non '_i' versions

internalize their arguments! INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Pure: get_thm interface (of PureThy and ProofContext) expects

datatype thmref (with constructors Name and NameSelection) instead of

plain string -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

* Pure: cases produced by proof methods specify options, where NONE

means to remove case bindings -- INCOMPATIBILITY in

(RAW_)METHOD_CASES.

* Pure: the following operations retrieve axioms or theorems from a

theory node or theory hierarchy, respectively:

Theory.axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list

Theory.all_axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list

PureThy.thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list

PureThy.all_thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list

* Pure: print_tac now outputs the goal through the trace channel.

* Isar toplevel: improved diagnostics, mostly for Poly/ML only.

Reference Toplevel.debug (default false) controls detailed printing

and tracing of low-level exceptions; Toplevel.profiling (default 0)

controls execution profiling -- set to 1 for time and 2 for space

(both increase the runtime).

* Isar session: The initial use of ROOT.ML is now always timed,

i.e. the log will show the actual process times, in contrast to the

elapsed wall-clock time that the outer shell wrapper produces.

* Simplifier: improved handling of bound variables (nameless

representation, avoid allocating new strings). Simprocs that invoke

the Simplifier recursively should use Simplifier.inherit_bounds to

avoid local name clashes. Failure to do so produces warnings

"Simplifier: renamed bound variable ..."; set Simplifier.debug_bounds

for further details.

* ML functions legacy_bindings and use_legacy_bindings produce ML fact

bindings for all theorems stored within a given theory; this may help

in porting non-Isar theories to Isar ones, while keeping ML proof

scripts for the time being.

* ML operator HTML.with_charset specifies the charset begin used for

generated HTML files. For example:

HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Hebrew";

HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Chinese";

*** System ***

* Allow symlinks to all proper Isabelle executables (Isabelle,

isabelle, isatool etc.).

* ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT setting specifies preferred document format (for

isatool doc, isatool mkdir, display_drafts etc.).

* isatool usedir: option -f allows specification of the ML file to be

used by Isabelle; default is ROOT.ML.

* New isatool version outputs the version identifier of the Isabelle

distribution being used.

* HOL: new isatool dimacs2hol converts files in DIMACS CNF format

(containing Boolean satisfiability problems) into Isabelle/HOL

theories.

New in Isabelle2004 (April 2004)

--------------------------------

*** General ***

* Provers/order.ML: new efficient reasoner for partial and linear orders.

Replaces linorder.ML.

* Pure: Greek letters (except small lambda, λ), as well as Gothic

(𝔞...𝔷𝔄...ℨ), calligraphic (𝒜...𝒵), and Euler

(𝖺...𝗓), are now considered normal letters, and can therefore

be used anywhere where an ASCII letter (a...zA...Z) has until

now. COMPATIBILITY: This obviously changes the parsing of some

terms, especially where a symbol has been used as a binder, say

'Πx. ...', which is now a type error since Πx will be parsed

as an identifier. Fix it by inserting a space around former

symbols. Call 'isatool fixgreek' to try to fix parsing errors in

existing theory and ML files.

* Pure: Macintosh and Windows line-breaks are now allowed in theory files.

* Pure: single letter sub/superscripts (\<^isub> and \<^isup>) are now

allowed in identifiers. Similar to Greek letters \<^isub> is now considered

a normal (but invisible) letter. For multiple letter subscripts repeat

\<^isub> like this: x\<^isub>1\<^isub>2.

* Pure: There are now sub-/superscripts that can span more than one

character. Text between ⇘ and ⇙ is set in subscript in

ProofGeneral and LaTeX, text between ⇗ and ⇖ in

superscript. The new control characters are not identifier parts.

* Pure: Control-symbols of the form \<^raw:...> will literally print the

content of "..." to the latex file instead of \isacntrl... . The "..."

may consist of any printable characters excluding the end bracket >.

* Pure: Using new Isar command "finalconsts" (or the ML functions

Theory.add_finals or Theory.add_finals_i) it is now possible to

declare constants "final", which prevents their being given a definition

later. It is useful for constants whose behaviour is fixed axiomatically

rather than definitionally, such as the meta-logic connectives.

* Pure: 'instance' now handles general arities with general sorts

(i.e. intersections of classes),

* Presentation: generated HTML now uses a CSS style sheet to make layout

(somewhat) independent of content. It is copied from lib/html/isabelle.css.

It can be changed to alter the colors/layout of generated pages.

*** Isar ***

* Tactic emulation methods rule_tac, erule_tac, drule_tac, frule_tac,

cut_tac, subgoal_tac and thin_tac:

- Now understand static (Isar) contexts. As a consequence, users of Isar

locales are no longer forced to write Isar proof scripts.

For details see Isar Reference Manual, paragraph 4.3.2: Further tactic

emulations.

- INCOMPATIBILITY: names of variables to be instantiated may no

longer be enclosed in quotes. Instead, precede variable name with `?'.

This is consistent with the instantiation attribute "where".

* Attributes "where" and "of":

- Now take type variables of instantiated theorem into account when reading

the instantiation string. This fixes a bug that caused instantiated

theorems to have too special types in some circumstances.

- "where" permits explicit instantiations of type variables.

* Calculation commands "moreover" and "also" no longer interfere with

current facts ("this"), admitting arbitrary combinations with "then"

and derived forms.

* Locales:

- Goal statements involving the context element "includes" no longer

generate theorems with internal delta predicates (those ending on

"_axioms") in the premise.

Resolve particular premise with <locale>.intro to obtain old form.

- Fixed bug in type inference ("unify_frozen") that prevented mix of target

specification and "includes" elements in goal statement.

- Rule sets <locale>.intro and <locale>.axioms no longer declared as

[intro?] and [elim?] (respectively) by default.

- Experimental command for instantiation of locales in proof contexts:

instantiate <label>[<attrs>]: <loc>

Instantiates locale <loc> and adds all its theorems to the current context

taking into account their attributes. Label and attrs are optional

modifiers, like in theorem declarations. If present, names of

instantiated theorems are qualified with <label>, and the attributes

<attrs> are applied after any attributes these theorems might have already.

If the locale has assumptions, a chained fact of the form

"<loc> t1 ... tn" is expected from which instantiations of the parameters

are derived. The command does not support old-style locales declared

with "locale (open)".

A few (very simple) examples can be found in FOL/ex/LocaleInst.thy.

* HOL: Tactic emulation methods induct_tac and case_tac understand static

(Isar) contexts.

*** HOL ***

* Proof import: new image HOL4 contains the imported library from

the HOL4 system with about 2500 theorems. It is imported by

replaying proof terms produced by HOL4 in Isabelle. The HOL4 image

can be used like any other Isabelle image. See

HOL/Import/HOL/README for more information.

* Simplifier:

- Much improved handling of linear and partial orders.

Reasoners for linear and partial orders are set up for type classes

"linorder" and "order" respectively, and are added to the default simpset

as solvers. This means that the simplifier can build transitivity chains

to solve goals from the assumptions.

- INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break occasionally. Typically, applications

of blast or auto after simplification become unnecessary because the goal

is solved by simplification already.

* Numerics: new theory Ring_and_Field contains over 250 basic numerical laws,

all proved in axiomatic type classes for semirings, rings and fields.

* Numerics:

- Numeric types (nat, int, and in HOL-Complex rat, real, complex, etc.) are

now formalized using the Ring_and_Field theory mentioned above.

- INCOMPATIBILITY: simplification and arithmetic behaves somewhat differently

than before, because now they are set up once in a generic manner.

- INCOMPATIBILITY: many type-specific arithmetic laws have gone.

Look for the general versions in Ring_and_Field (and Power if they concern

exponentiation).

* Type "rat" of the rational numbers is now available in HOL-Complex.

* Records:

- Record types are now by default printed with their type abbreviation

instead of the list of all field types. This can be configured via

the reference "print_record_type_abbr".

- Simproc "record_upd_simproc" for simplification of multiple updates added

(not enabled by default).

- Simproc "record_ex_sel_eq_simproc" to simplify EX x. sel r = x resp.

EX x. x = sel r to True (not enabled by default).

- Tactic "record_split_simp_tac" to split and simplify records added.

* 'specification' command added, allowing for definition by

specification. There is also an 'ax_specification' command that

introduces the new constants axiomatically.

* arith(_tac) is now able to generate counterexamples for reals as well.

* HOL-Algebra: new locale "ring" for non-commutative rings.

* HOL-ex: InductiveInvariant_examples illustrates advanced recursive function

definitions, thanks to Sava Krsti\'{c} and John Matthews.

* HOL-Matrix: a first theory for matrices in HOL with an application of

matrix theory to linear programming.

* Unions and Intersections:

The latex output syntax of UN and INT has been changed

from "\Union x \in A. B" to "\Union_{x \in A} B"

i.e. the index formulae has become a subscript.

Similarly for "\Union x. B", and for \Inter instead of \Union.

* Unions and Intersections over Intervals:

There is new short syntax "UN i<=n. A" for "UN i:{0..n}. A". There is

also an x-symbol version with subscripts "⋃⇘i <= n⇙. A"

like in normal math, and corresponding versions for < and for intersection.

* HOL/List: Ordering "lexico" is renamed "lenlex" and the standard

lexicographic dictonary ordering has been added as "lexord".

* ML: the legacy theory structures Int and List have been removed. They had

conflicted with ML Basis Library structures having the same names.

* 'refute' command added to search for (finite) countermodels. Only works

for a fragment of HOL. The installation of an external SAT solver is

highly recommended. See "HOL/Refute.thy" for details.

* 'quickcheck' command: Allows to find counterexamples by evaluating

formulae under an assignment of free variables to random values.

In contrast to 'refute', it can deal with inductive datatypes,

but cannot handle quantifiers. See "HOL/ex/Quickcheck_Examples.thy"

for examples.

*** HOLCF ***

* Streams now come with concatenation and are part of the HOLCF image

New in Isabelle2003 (May 2003)

------------------------------

*** General ***

* Provers/simplifier:

- Completely reimplemented method simp (ML: Asm_full_simp_tac):

Assumptions are now subject to complete mutual simplification,

not just from left to right. The simplifier now preserves

the order of assumptions.

Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:

-- simp sometimes diverges where the old version did

not, e.g. invoking simp on the goal

[| P (f x); y = x; f x = f y |] ==> Q

now gives rise to the infinite reduction sequence

P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> P(f y) --(y = x)--> P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> ...

Using "simp (asm_lr)" (ML: Asm_lr_simp_tac) instead often solves this

kind of problem.

-- Tactics combining classical reasoner and simplification (such as auto)

are also affected by this change, because many of them rely on

simp. They may sometimes diverge as well or yield a different numbers

of subgoals. Try to use e.g. force, fastsimp, or safe instead of auto

in case of problems. Sometimes subsequent calls to the classical

reasoner will fail because a preceeding call to the simplifier too

eagerly simplified the goal, e.g. deleted redundant premises.

- The simplifier trace now shows the names of the applied rewrite rules

- You can limit the number of recursive invocations of the simplifier

during conditional rewriting (where the simplifie tries to solve the

conditions before applying the rewrite rule):

ML "simp_depth_limit := n"

where n is an integer. Thus you can force termination where previously

the simplifier would diverge.

- Accepts free variables as head terms in congruence rules. Useful in Isar.

- No longer aborts on failed congruence proof. Instead, the

congruence is ignored.

* Pure: New generic framework for extracting programs from constructive

proofs. See HOL/Extraction.thy for an example instantiation, as well

as HOL/Extraction for some case studies.

* Pure: The main goal of the proof state is no longer shown by default, only

the subgoals. This behaviour is controlled by a new flag.

PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Settings -> Show Main Goal

(ML: Proof.show_main_goal).

* Pure: You can find all matching introduction rules for subgoal 1, i.e. all

rules whose conclusion matches subgoal 1:

PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Show me -> matching rules

The rules are ordered by how closely they match the subgoal.

In particular, rules that solve a subgoal outright are displayed first

(or rather last, the way they are printed).

(ML: ProofGeneral.print_intros())

* Pure: New flag trace_unify_fail causes unification to print

diagnostic information (PG: in trace buffer) when it fails. This is

useful for figuring out why single step proofs like rule, erule or

assumption failed.

* Pure: Locale specifications now produce predicate definitions

according to the body of text (covering assumptions modulo local

definitions); predicate "loc_axioms" covers newly introduced text,

while "loc" is cumulative wrt. all included locale expressions; the

latter view is presented only on export into the global theory

context; potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use "(open)" option to fall back

on the old view without predicates;

* Pure: predefined locales "var" and "struct" are useful for sharing

parameters (as in CASL, for example); just specify something like

``var x + var y + struct M'' as import;

* Pure: improved thms_containing: proper indexing of facts instead of

raw theorems; check validity of results wrt. current name space;

include local facts of proof configuration (also covers active

locales), cover fixed variables in index; may use "_" in term

specification; an optional limit for the number of printed facts may

be given (the default is 40);

* Pure: disallow duplicate fact bindings within new-style theory files

(batch-mode only);

* Provers: improved induct method: assumptions introduced by case

"foo" are split into "foo.hyps" (from the rule) and "foo.prems" (from

the goal statement); "foo" still refers to all facts collectively;

* Provers: the function blast.overloaded has been removed: all constants

are regarded as potentially overloaded, which improves robustness in exchange

for slight decrease in efficiency;

* Provers/linorder: New generic prover for transitivity reasoning over

linear orders. Note: this prover is not efficient!

* Isar: preview of problems to finish 'show' now produce an error

rather than just a warning (in interactive mode);

*** HOL ***

* arith(_tac)

- Produces a counter example if it cannot prove a goal.

Note that the counter example may be spurious if the goal is not a formula

of quantifier-free linear arithmetic.

In ProofGeneral the counter example appears in the trace buffer.

- Knows about div k and mod k where k is a numeral of type nat or int.

- Calls full Presburger arithmetic (by Amine Chaieb) if quantifier-free

linear arithmetic fails. This takes account of quantifiers and divisibility.

Presburger arithmetic can also be called explicitly via presburger(_tac).

* simp's arithmetic capabilities have been enhanced a bit: it now

takes ~= in premises into account (by performing a case split);

* simp reduces "m*(n div m) + n mod m" to n, even if the two summands

are distributed over a sum of terms;

* New tactic "trans_tac" and method "trans" instantiate

Provers/linorder.ML for axclasses "order" and "linorder" (predicates

"<=", "<" and "=").

* function INCOMPATIBILITIES: Pi-sets have been redefined and moved from main

HOL to Library/FuncSet; constant "Fun.op o" is now called "Fun.comp";

* 'typedef' command has new option "open" to suppress the set

definition;

* functions Min and Max on finite sets have been introduced (theory

Finite_Set);

* attribute [symmetric] now works for relations as well; it turns

(x,y) : R^-1 into (y,x) : R, and vice versa;

* induct over a !!-quantified statement (say !!x1..xn):

each "case" automatically performs "fix x1 .. xn" with exactly those names.

* Map: `empty' is no longer a constant but a syntactic abbreviation for

%x. None. Warning: empty_def now refers to the previously hidden definition

of the empty set.

* Algebra: formalization of classical algebra. Intended as base for

any algebraic development in Isabelle. Currently covers group theory

(up to Sylow's theorem) and ring theory (Universal Property of

Univariate Polynomials). Contributions welcome;

* GroupTheory: deleted, since its material has been moved to Algebra;

* Complex: new directory of the complex numbers with numeric constants,

nonstandard complex numbers, and some complex analysis, standard and

nonstandard (Jacques Fleuriot);

* HOL-Complex: new image for analysis, replacing HOL-Real and HOL-Hyperreal;

* Hyperreal: introduced Gauge integration and hyperreal logarithms (Jacques

Fleuriot);

* Real/HahnBanach: updated and adapted to locales;

* NumberTheory: added Gauss's law of quadratic reciprocity (by Avigad,

Gray and Kramer);

* UNITY: added the Meier-Sanders theory of progress sets;

* MicroJava: bytecode verifier and lightweight bytecode verifier

as abstract algorithms, instantiated to the JVM;

* Bali: Java source language formalization. Type system, operational

semantics, axiomatic semantics. Supported language features:

classes, interfaces, objects,virtual methods, static methods,

static/instance fields, arrays, access modifiers, definite

assignment, exceptions.

*** ZF ***

* ZF/Constructible: consistency proof for AC (Gdel's constructible

universe, etc.);

* Main ZF: virtually all theories converted to new-style format;

*** ML ***

* Pure: Tactic.prove provides sane interface for internal proofs;

omits the infamous "standard" operation, so this is more appropriate

than prove_goalw_cterm in many situations (e.g. in simprocs);

* Pure: improved error reporting of simprocs;

* Provers: Simplifier.simproc(_i) provides sane interface for setting

up simprocs;

*** Document preparation ***

* uses \par instead of \\ for line breaks in theory text. This may

shift some page breaks in large documents. To get the old behaviour

use \renewcommand{\isanewline}{\mbox{}\\\mbox{}} in root.tex.

* minimized dependencies of isabelle.sty and isabellesym.sty on

other packages

* € now needs package babel/greek instead of marvosym (which

broke \Rightarrow)

* normal size for 𝟬...𝟵 (uses \mathbf instead of

textcomp package)

New in Isabelle2002 (March 2002)

--------------------------------

*** Document preparation ***

* greatly simplified document preparation setup, including more

graceful interpretation of isatool usedir -i/-d/-D options, and more

instructive isatool mkdir; users should basically be able to get

started with "isatool mkdir HOL Test && isatool make"; alternatively,

users may run a separate document processing stage manually like this:

"isatool usedir -D output HOL Test && isatool document Test/output";

* theory dependency graph may now be incorporated into documents;

isatool usedir -g true will produce session_graph.eps/.pdf for use

with \includegraphics of LaTeX;

* proper spacing of consecutive markup elements, especially text

blocks after section headings;

* support bold style (for single symbols only), input syntax is like

this: "α" or "A";

* ∙ is now output as bold \cdot by default, which looks much

better in printed text;

* added default LaTeX bindings for ⊩ and ⊫;

note that these symbols are currently unavailable in Proof General /

X-Symbol; new symbols 𝟬, 𝟭, ..., 𝟵, and €;

* isatool latex no longer depends on changed TEXINPUTS, instead

isatool document copies the Isabelle style files to the target

location;

*** Isar ***

* Pure/Provers: improved proof by cases and induction;

- 'case' command admits impromptu naming of parameters (such as

"case (Suc n)");

- 'induct' method divinates rule instantiation from the inductive

claim; no longer requires excessive ?P bindings for proper

instantiation of cases;

- 'induct' method properly enumerates all possibilities of set/type

rules; as a consequence facts may be also passed through *type*

rules without further ado;

- 'induct' method now derives symbolic cases from the *rulified*

rule (before it used to rulify cases stemming from the internal

atomized version); this means that the context of a non-atomic

statement becomes is included in the hypothesis, avoiding the

slightly cumbersome show "PROP ?case" form;

- 'induct' may now use elim-style induction rules without chaining

facts, using ``missing'' premises from the goal state; this allows

rules stemming from inductive sets to be applied in unstructured

scripts, while still benefitting from proper handling of non-atomic

statements; NB: major inductive premises need to be put first, all

the rest of the goal is passed through the induction;

- 'induct' proper support for mutual induction involving non-atomic

rule statements (uses the new concept of simultaneous goals, see

below);

- append all possible rule selections, but only use the first

success (no backtracking);

- removed obsolete "(simplified)" and "(stripped)" options of methods;

- undeclared rule case names default to numbers 1, 2, 3, ...;

- added 'print_induct_rules' (covered by help item in recent Proof

General versions);

- moved induct/cases attributes to Pure, methods to Provers;

- generic method setup instantiated for FOL and HOL;

* Pure: support multiple simultaneous goal statements, for example

"have a: A and b: B" (same for 'theorem' etc.); being a pure

meta-level mechanism, this acts as if several individual goals had

been stated separately; in particular common proof methods need to be

repeated in order to cover all claims; note that a single elimination

step is *not* sufficient to establish the two conjunctions, so this

fails:

assume "A & B" then have A and B .. (*".." fails*)

better use "obtain" in situations as above; alternative refer to

multi-step methods like 'auto', 'simp_all', 'blast+' etc.;

* Pure: proper integration with ``locales''; unlike the original

version by Florian Kammller, Isar locales package high-level proof

contexts rather than raw logical ones (e.g. we admit to include

attributes everywhere); operations on locales include merge and

rename; support for implicit arguments (``structures''); simultaneous

type-inference over imports and text; see also HOL/ex/Locales.thy for

some examples;

* Pure: the following commands have been ``localized'', supporting a

target locale specification "(in name)": 'lemma', 'theorem',

'corollary', 'lemmas', 'theorems', 'declare'; the results will be

stored both within the locale and at the theory level (exported and

qualified by the locale name);

* Pure: theory goals may now be specified in ``long'' form, with

ad-hoc contexts consisting of arbitrary locale elements. for example

``lemma foo: fixes x assumes "A x" shows "B x"'' (local syntax and

definitions may be given, too); the result is a meta-level rule with

the context elements being discharged in the obvious way;

* Pure: new proof command 'using' allows to augment currently used

facts after a goal statement ('using' is syntactically analogous to

'apply', but acts on the goal's facts only); this allows chained facts

to be separated into parts given before and after a claim, as in

``from a and b have C using d and e <proof>'';

* Pure: renamed "antecedent" case to "rule_context";

* Pure: new 'judgment' command records explicit information about the

object-logic embedding (used by several tools internally); no longer

use hard-wired "Trueprop";

* Pure: added 'corollary' command;

* Pure: fixed 'token_translation' command;

* Pure: removed obsolete 'exported' attribute;

* Pure: dummy pattern "_" in is/let is now automatically lifted over

bound variables: "ALL x. P x --> Q x" (is "ALL x. _ --> ?C x")

supersedes more cumbersome ... (is "ALL x. _ x --> ?C x");

* Pure: method 'atomize' presents local goal premises as object-level

statements (atomic meta-level propositions); setup controlled via

rewrite rules declarations of 'atomize' attribute; example

application: 'induct' method with proper rule statements in improper

proof *scripts*;

* Pure: emulation of instantiation tactics (rule_tac, cut_tac, etc.)

now consider the syntactic context of assumptions, giving a better

chance to get type-inference of the arguments right (this is

especially important for locales);

* Pure: "sorry" no longer requires quick_and_dirty in interactive

mode;

* Pure/obtain: the formal conclusion "thesis", being marked as

``internal'', may no longer be reference directly in the text;

potential INCOMPATIBILITY, may need to use "?thesis" in rare

situations;

* Pure: generic 'sym' attribute which declares a rule both as pure

'elim?' and for the 'symmetric' operation;

* Pure: marginal comments ``--'' may now occur just anywhere in the

text; the fixed correlation with particular command syntax has been

discontinued;

* Pure: new method 'rules' is particularly well-suited for proof

search in intuitionistic logic; a bit slower than 'blast' or 'fast',

but often produces more compact proof terms with less detours;

* Pure/Provers/classical: simplified integration with pure rule

attributes and methods; the classical "intro?/elim?/dest?"

declarations coincide with the pure ones; the "rule" method no longer

includes classically swapped intros; "intro" and "elim" methods no

longer pick rules from the context; also got rid of ML declarations

AddXIs/AddXEs/AddXDs; all of this has some potential for

INCOMPATIBILITY;

* Provers/classical: attribute 'swapped' produces classical inversions

of introduction rules;

* Provers/simplifier: 'simplified' attribute may refer to explicit

rules instead of full simplifier context; 'iff' attribute handles

conditional rules;

* HOL: 'typedef' now allows alternative names for Rep/Abs morphisms;

* HOL: 'recdef' now fails on unfinished automated proofs, use

"(permissive)" option to recover old behavior;

* HOL: 'inductive' no longer features separate (collective) attributes

for 'intros' (was found too confusing);

* HOL: properly declared induction rules less_induct and

wf_induct_rule;

*** HOL ***

* HOL: moved over to sane numeral syntax; the new policy is as

follows:

- 0 and 1 are polymorphic constants, which are defined on any

numeric type (nat, int, real etc.);

- 2, 3, 4, ... and -1, -2, -3, ... are polymorphic numerals, based

binary representation internally;

- type nat has special constructor Suc, and generally prefers Suc 0

over 1::nat and Suc (Suc 0) over 2::nat;

This change may cause significant problems of INCOMPATIBILITY; here

are some hints on converting existing sources:

- due to the new "num" token, "-0" and "-1" etc. are now atomic

entities, so expressions involving "-" (unary or binary minus) need

to be spaced properly;

- existing occurrences of "1" may need to be constraint "1::nat" or

even replaced by Suc 0; similar for old "2";

- replace "#nnn" by "nnn", and "#-nnn" by "-nnn";

- remove all special provisions on numerals in proofs;

* HOL: simp rules nat_number expand numerals on nat to Suc/0

representation (depends on bin_arith_simps in the default context);

* HOL: symbolic syntax for x^2 (numeral 2);

* HOL: the class of all HOL types is now called "type" rather than

"term"; INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt references to this type class

in axclass/classes, instance/arities, and (usually rare) occurrences

in typings (of consts etc.); internally the class is called

"HOL.type", ML programs should refer to HOLogic.typeS;

* HOL/record package improvements:

- new derived operations "fields" to build a partial record section,

"extend" to promote a fixed record to a record scheme, and

"truncate" for the reverse; cf. theorems "xxx.defs", which are *not*

declared as simp by default;

- shared operations ("more", "fields", etc.) now need to be always

qualified) --- potential INCOMPATIBILITY;

- removed "make_scheme" operations (use "make" with "extend") --

INCOMPATIBILITY;

- removed "more" class (simply use "term") -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

- provides cases/induct rules for use with corresponding Isar

methods (for concrete records, record schemes, concrete more

parts, and schematic more parts -- in that order);

- internal definitions directly based on a light-weight abstract

theory of product types over typedef rather than datatype;

* HOL: generic code generator for generating executable ML code from

specifications; specific support for HOL constructs such as inductive

datatypes and sets, as well as recursive functions; can be invoked

via 'generate_code' theory section;

* HOL: canonical cases/induct rules for n-tuples (n = 3..7);

* HOL: consolidated and renamed several theories. In particular:

Ord.thy has been absorbed into HOL.thy

String.thy has been absorbed into List.thy

* HOL: concrete setsum syntax "∑i:A. b" == "setsum (%i. b) A"

(beware of argument permutation!);

* HOL: linorder_less_split superseded by linorder_cases;

* HOL/List: "nodups" renamed to "distinct";

* HOL: added "The" definite description operator; move Hilbert's "Eps"

to peripheral theory "Hilbert_Choice"; some INCOMPATIBILITIES:

- Ex_def has changed, now need to use some_eq_ex

* HOL: made split_all_tac safe; EXISTING PROOFS MAY FAIL OR LOOP, so

in this (rare) case use:

delSWrapper "split_all_tac"

addSbefore ("unsafe_split_all_tac", unsafe_split_all_tac)

* HOL: added safe wrapper "split_conv_tac" to claset; EXISTING PROOFS

MAY FAIL;

* HOL: introduced f^n = f o ... o f; warning: due to the limits of

Isabelle's type classes, ^ on functions and relations has too general

a domain, namely ('a * 'b) set and 'a => 'b; this means that it may be

necessary to attach explicit type constraints;

* HOL/Relation: the prefix name of the infix "O" has been changed from

"comp" to "rel_comp"; INCOMPATIBILITY: a few theorems have been

renamed accordingly (eg "compI" -> "rel_compI").

* HOL: syntax translations now work properly with numerals and records

expressions;

* HOL: bounded abstraction now uses syntax "%" / "λ" instead

of "lam" -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

* HOL: got rid of some global declarations (potential INCOMPATIBILITY

for ML tools): const "()" renamed "Product_Type.Unity", type "unit"

renamed "Product_Type.unit";

* HOL: renamed rtrancl_into_rtrancl2 to converse_rtrancl_into_rtrancl

* HOL: removed obsolete theorem "optionE" (use "option.exhaust", or

the "cases" method);

* HOL/GroupTheory: group theory examples including Sylow's theorem (by

Florian Kammller);

* HOL/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory format; several

parts turned into readable document, with proper Isar proof texts and

some explanations (by Gerwin Klein);

* HOL-Real: added Complex_Numbers (by Gertrud Bauer);

* HOL-Hyperreal is now a logic image;

*** HOLCF ***

* Isar: consts/constdefs supports mixfix syntax for continuous

operations;

* Isar: domain package adapted to new-style theory format, e.g. see

HOLCF/ex/Dnat.thy;

* theory Lift: proper use of rep_datatype lift instead of ML hacks --

potential INCOMPATIBILITY; now use plain induct_tac instead of former

lift.induct_tac, always use UU instead of Undef;

* HOLCF/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory;

*** ZF ***

* Isar: proper integration of logic-specific tools and packages,

including theory commands '(co)inductive', '(co)datatype',

'rep_datatype', 'inductive_cases', as well as methods 'ind_cases',

'induct_tac', 'case_tac', and 'typecheck' (with attribute 'TC');

* theory Main no longer includes AC; for the Axiom of Choice, base

your theory on Main_ZFC;

* the integer library now covers quotients and remainders, with many

laws relating division to addition, multiplication, etc.;

* ZF/UNITY: Chandy and Misra's UNITY is now available in ZF, giving a

typeless version of the formalism;

* ZF/AC, Coind, IMP, Resid: updated and converted to new-style theory

format;

* ZF/Induct: new directory for examples of inductive definitions,

including theory Multiset for multiset orderings; converted to

new-style theory format;

* ZF: many new theorems about lists, ordinals, etc.;

*** General ***

* Pure/kernel: meta-level proof terms (by Stefan Berghofer); reference

variable proof controls level of detail: 0 = no proofs (only oracle

dependencies), 1 = lemma dependencies, 2 = compact proof terms; see

also ref manual for further ML interfaces;

* Pure/axclass: removed obsolete ML interface

goal_subclass/goal_arity;

* Pure/syntax: new token syntax "num" for plain numerals (without "#"

of "xnum"); potential INCOMPATIBILITY, since -0, -1 etc. are now

separate tokens, so expressions involving minus need to be spaced

properly;

* Pure/syntax: support non-oriented infixes, using keyword "infix"

rather than "infixl" or "infixr";

* Pure/syntax: concrete syntax for dummy type variables admits genuine

sort constraint specifications in type inference; e.g. "x::_::foo"

ensures that the type of "x" is of sort "foo" (but not necessarily a

type variable);

* Pure/syntax: print modes "type_brackets" and "no_type_brackets"

control output of nested => (types); the default behavior is

"type_brackets";

* Pure/syntax: builtin parse translation for "_constify" turns valued

tokens into AST constants;

* Pure/syntax: prefer later declarations of translations and print

translation functions; potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to reverse

multiple declarations for same syntax element constant;

* Pure/show_hyps reset by default (in accordance to existing Isar

practice);

* Provers/classical: renamed addaltern to addafter, addSaltern to

addSafter;

* Provers/clasimp: ``iff'' declarations now handle conditional rules

as well;

* system: tested support for MacOS X; should be able to get Isabelle +

Proof General to work in a plain Terminal after installing Poly/ML

(e.g. from the Isabelle distribution area) and GNU bash alone

(e.g. from http://www.apple.com); full X11, XEmacs and X-Symbol

support requires further installations, e.g. from

http://fink.sourceforge.net/);

* system: support Poly/ML 4.1.1 (able to manage larger heaps);

* system: reduced base memory usage by Poly/ML (approx. 20 MB instead

of 40 MB), cf. ML_OPTIONS;

* system: Proof General keywords specification is now part of the

Isabelle distribution (see etc/isar-keywords.el);

* system: support for persistent Proof General sessions (refrain from

outdating all loaded theories on startup); user may create writable

logic images like this: ``isabelle -q HOL Test'';

* system: smart selection of Isabelle process versus Isabelle

interface, accommodates case-insensitive file systems (e.g. HFS+); may

run both "isabelle" and "Isabelle" even if file names are badly

damaged (executable inspects the case of the first letter of its own

name); added separate "isabelle-process" and "isabelle-interface";

* system: refrain from any attempt at filtering input streams; no

longer support ``8bit'' encoding of old isabelle font, instead proper

iso-latin characters may now be used; the related isatools

"symbolinput" and "nonascii" have disappeared as well;

* system: removed old "xterm" interface (the print modes "xterm" and

"xterm_color" are still available for direct use in a suitable

terminal);

New in Isabelle99-2 (February 2001)

-----------------------------------

*** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES ***

* HOL: please note that theories in the Library and elsewhere often use the

new-style (Isar) format; to refer to their theorems in an ML script you must

bind them to ML identifers by e.g. val thm_name = thm "thm_name";

* HOL: inductive package no longer splits induction rule aggressively,

but only as far as specified by the introductions given; the old

format may be recovered via ML function complete_split_rule or attribute

'split_rule (complete)';

* HOL: induct renamed to lfp_induct, lfp_Tarski to lfp_unfold,

gfp_Tarski to gfp_unfold;

* HOL: contrapos, contrapos2 renamed to contrapos_nn, contrapos_pp;

* HOL: infix "dvd" now has priority 50 rather than 70 (because it is a

relation); infix "^^" has been renamed "``"; infix "``" has been

renamed "`"; "univalent" has been renamed "single_valued";

* HOL/Real: "rinv" and "hrinv" replaced by overloaded "inverse"

operation;

* HOLCF: infix "`" has been renamed "$"; the symbol syntax is ⋅;

* Isar: 'obtain' no longer declares "that" fact as simp/intro;

* Isar/HOL: method 'induct' now handles non-atomic goals; as a

consequence, it is no longer monotonic wrt. the local goal context

(which is now passed through the inductive cases);

* Document preparation: renamed standard symbols 𝔩 to ≪ and

𝔤 to ≫;

*** Document preparation ***

* \isabellestyle{NAME} selects version of Isabelle output (currently

available: are "it" for near math-mode best-style output, "sl" for

slanted text style, and "tt" for plain type-writer; if no

\isabellestyle command is given, output is according to slanted

type-writer);

* support sub/super scripts (for single symbols only), input syntax is

like this: "A^{*}" or "A^{⋆}";

* some more standard symbols; see Appendix A of the system manual for

the complete list of symbols defined in isabellesym.sty;

* improved isabelle style files; more abstract symbol implementation

(should now use \isamath{...} and \isatext{...} in custom symbol

definitions);

* antiquotation @{goals} and @{subgoals} for output of *dynamic* goals

state; Note that presentation of goal states does not conform to

actual human-readable proof documents. Please do not include goal

states into document output unless you really know what you are doing!

* proper indentation of antiquoted output with proportional LaTeX

fonts;

* no_document ML operator temporarily disables LaTeX document

generation;

* isatool unsymbolize tunes sources for plain ASCII communication;

*** Isar ***

* Pure: Isar now suffers initial goal statements to contain unbound

schematic variables (this does not conform to actual readable proof

documents, due to unpredictable outcome and non-compositional proof

checking); users who know what they are doing may use schematic goals

for Prolog-style synthesis of proven results;

* Pure: assumption method (an implicit finishing) now handles actual

rules as well;

* Pure: improved 'obtain' --- moved to Pure, insert "that" into

initial goal, declare "that" only as Pure intro (only for single

steps); the "that" rule assumption may now be involved in implicit

finishing, thus ".." becomes a feasible for trivial obtains;

* Pure: default proof step now includes 'intro_classes'; thus trivial

instance proofs may be performed by "..";

* Pure: ?thesis / ?this / "..." now work for pure meta-level

statements as well;

* Pure: more robust selection of calculational rules;

* Pure: the builtin notion of 'finished' goal now includes the ==-refl

rule (as well as the assumption rule);

* Pure: 'thm_deps' command visualizes dependencies of theorems and

lemmas, using the graph browser tool;

* Pure: predict failure of "show" in interactive mode;

* Pure: 'thms_containing' now takes actual terms as arguments;

* HOL: improved method 'induct' --- now handles non-atomic goals

(potential INCOMPATIBILITY); tuned error handling;

* HOL: cases and induct rules now provide explicit hints about the

number of facts to be consumed (0 for "type" and 1 for "set" rules);

any remaining facts are inserted into the goal verbatim;

* HOL: local contexts (aka cases) may now contain term bindings as

well; the 'cases' and 'induct' methods new provide a ?case binding for

the result to be shown in each case;

* HOL: added 'recdef_tc' command;

* isatool convert assists in eliminating legacy ML scripts;

*** HOL ***

* HOL/Library: a collection of generic theories to be used together

with main HOL; the theory loader path already includes this directory

by default; the following existing theories have been moved here:

HOL/Induct/Multiset, HOL/Induct/Acc (as Accessible_Part), HOL/While

(as While_Combinator), HOL/Lex/Prefix (as List_Prefix);

* HOL/Unix: "Some aspects of Unix file-system security", a typical

modelling and verification task performed in Isabelle/HOL +

Isabelle/Isar + Isabelle document preparation (by Markus Wenzel).

* HOL/Algebra: special summation operator SUM no longer exists, it has

been replaced by setsum; infix 'assoc' now has priority 50 (like

'dvd'); axiom 'one_not_zero' has been moved from axclass 'ring' to

'domain', this makes the theory consistent with mathematical

literature;

* HOL basics: added overloaded operations "inverse" and "divide"

(infix "/"), syntax for generic "abs" operation, generic summation

operator ∑;

* HOL/typedef: simplified package, provide more useful rules (see also

HOL/subset.thy);

* HOL/datatype: induction rule for arbitrarily branching datatypes is

now expressed as a proper nested rule (old-style tactic scripts may

require atomize_strip_tac to cope with non-atomic premises);

* HOL: renamed theory "Prod" to "Product_Type", renamed "split" rule

to "split_conv" (old name still available for compatibility);

* HOL: improved concrete syntax for strings (e.g. allows translation

rules with string literals);

* HOL-Real-Hyperreal: this extends HOL-Real with the hyperreals

and Fleuriot's mechanization of analysis, including the transcendental

functions for the reals;

* HOL/Real, HOL/Hyperreal: improved arithmetic simplification;

*** CTT ***

* CTT: x-symbol support for Pi, Sigma, -->, : (membership); note that

"lam" is displayed as TWO lambda-symbols

* CTT: theory Main now available, containing everything (that is, Bool

and Arith);

*** General ***

* Pure: the Simplifier has been implemented properly as a derived rule

outside of the actual kernel (at last!); the overall performance

penalty in practical applications is about 50%, while reliability of

the Isabelle inference kernel has been greatly improved;

* print modes "brackets" and "no_brackets" control output of nested =>

(types) and ==> (props); the default behaviour is "brackets";

* Provers: fast_tac (and friends) now handle actual object-logic rules

as assumptions as well;

* system: support Poly/ML 4.0;

* system: isatool install handles KDE version 1 or 2;

New in Isabelle99-1 (October 2000)

----------------------------------

*** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES ***

* HOL: simplification of natural numbers is much changed; to partly

recover the old behaviour (e.g. to prevent n+n rewriting to #2*n)

issue the following ML commands:

Delsimprocs Nat_Numeral_Simprocs.cancel_numerals;

Delsimprocs [Nat_Numeral_Simprocs.combine_numerals];

* HOL: simplification no longer dives into case-expressions; this is

controlled by "t.weak_case_cong" for each datatype t;

* HOL: nat_less_induct renamed to less_induct;

* HOL: systematic renaming of the SOME (Eps) rules, may use isatool

fixsome to patch .thy and .ML sources automatically;

select_equality -> some_equality

select_eq_Ex -> some_eq_ex

selectI2EX -> someI2_ex

selectI2 -> someI2

selectI -> someI

select1_equality -> some1_equality

Eps_sym_eq -> some_sym_eq_trivial

Eps_eq -> some_eq_trivial

* HOL: exhaust_tac on datatypes superceded by new generic case_tac;

* HOL: removed obsolete theorem binding expand_if (refer to split_if

instead);

* HOL: the recursion equations generated by 'recdef' are now called

f.simps instead of f.rules;

* HOL: qed_spec_mp now also handles bounded ALL as well;

* HOL: 0 is now overloaded, so the type constraint ":: nat" may

sometimes be needed;

* HOL: the constant for "f``x" is now "image" rather than "op ``";

* HOL: the constant for "f-``x" is now "vimage" rather than "op -``";

* HOL: the disjoint sum is now "<+>" instead of "Plus"; the cartesian

product is now "<*>" instead of "Times"; the lexicographic product is

now "<*lex*>" instead of "**";

* HOL: theory Sexp is now in HOL/Induct examples (it used to be part

of main HOL, but was unused); better use HOL's datatype package;

* HOL: removed "symbols" syntax for constant "override" of theory Map;

the old syntax may be recovered as follows:

syntax (symbols)

override :: "('a ~=> 'b) => ('a ~=> 'b) => ('a ~=> 'b)"

(infixl "\⊕" 100)

* HOL/Real: "rabs" replaced by overloaded "abs" function;

* HOL/ML: even fewer consts are declared as global (see theories Ord,

Lfp, Gfp, WF); this only affects ML packages that refer to const names

internally;

* HOL and ZF: syntax for quotienting wrt an equivalence relation

changed from A/r to A//r;

* ZF: new treatment of arithmetic (nat & int) may break some old

proofs;

* Isar: renamed some attributes (RS -> THEN, simplify -> simplified,

rulify -> rule_format, elimify -> elim_format, ...);

* Isar/Provers: intro/elim/dest attributes changed; renamed

intro/intro!/intro!! flags to intro!/intro/intro? (in most cases, one

should have to change intro!! to intro? only); replaced "delrule" by

"rule del";

* Isar/HOL: renamed "intrs" to "intros" in inductive definitions;

* Provers: strengthened force_tac by using new first_best_tac;

* LaTeX document preparation: several changes of isabelle.sty (see

lib/texinputs);

*** Document preparation ***

* formal comments (text blocks etc.) in new-style theories may now

contain antiquotations of thm/prop/term/typ/text to be presented

according to latex print mode; concrete syntax is like this:

@{term[show_types] "f(x) = a + x"};

* isatool mkdir provides easy setup of Isabelle session directories,

including proper document sources;

* generated LaTeX sources are now deleted after successful run

(isatool document -c); may retain a copy somewhere else via -D option

of isatool usedir;

* isatool usedir -D now lets isatool latex -o sty update the Isabelle

style files, achieving self-contained LaTeX sources and simplifying

LaTeX debugging;

* old-style theories now produce (crude) LaTeX output as well;

* browser info session directories are now self-contained (may be put

on WWW server seperately); improved graphs of nested sessions; removed

graph for 'all sessions';

* several improvements in isabelle style files; \isabellestyle{it}

produces fake math mode output; \isamarkupheader is now \section by

default; see lib/texinputs/isabelle.sty etc.;

*** Isar ***

* Isar/Pure: local results and corresponding term bindings are now

subject to Hindley-Milner polymorphism (similar to ML); this

accommodates incremental type-inference very nicely;

* Isar/Pure: new derived language element 'obtain' supports

generalized existence reasoning;

* Isar/Pure: new calculational elements 'moreover' and 'ultimately'

support accumulation of results, without applying any rules yet;

useful to collect intermediate results without explicit name

references, and for use with transitivity rules with more than 2

premises;

* Isar/Pure: scalable support for case-analysis type proofs: new

'case' language element refers to local contexts symbolically, as

produced by certain proof methods; internally, case names are attached

to theorems as "tags";

* Isar/Pure: theory command 'hide' removes declarations from

class/type/const name spaces;

* Isar/Pure: theory command 'defs' supports option "(overloaded)" to

indicate potential overloading;

* Isar/Pure: changed syntax of local blocks from {{ }} to { };

* Isar/Pure: syntax of sorts made 'inner', i.e. have to write

"{a,b,c}" instead of {a,b,c};

* Isar/Pure now provides its own version of intro/elim/dest

attributes; useful for building new logics, but beware of confusion

with the version in Provers/classical;

* Isar/Pure: the local context of (non-atomic) goals is provided via

case name 'antecedent';

* Isar/Pure: removed obsolete 'transfer' attribute (transfer of thms

to the current context is now done automatically);

* Isar/Pure: theory command 'method_setup' provides a simple interface

for definining proof methods in ML;

* Isar/Provers: intro/elim/dest attributes changed; renamed

intro/intro!/intro!! flags to intro!/intro/intro? (INCOMPATIBILITY, in

most cases, one should have to change intro!! to intro? only);

replaced "delrule" by "rule del";

* Isar/Provers: new 'hypsubst' method, plain 'subst' method and

'symmetric' attribute (the latter supercedes [RS sym]);

* Isar/Provers: splitter support (via 'split' attribute and 'simp'

method modifier); 'simp' method: 'only:' modifier removes loopers as

well (including splits);

* Isar/Provers: Simplifier and Classical methods now support all kind

of modifiers used in the past, including 'cong', 'iff', etc.

* Isar/Provers: added 'fastsimp' and 'clarsimp' methods (combination

of Simplifier and Classical reasoner);

* Isar/HOL: new proof method 'cases' and improved version of 'induct'

now support named cases; major packages (inductive, datatype, primrec,

recdef) support case names and properly name parameters;

* Isar/HOL: new transitivity rules for substitution in inequalities --

monotonicity conditions are extracted to be proven at end of

calculations;

* Isar/HOL: removed 'case_split' thm binding, should use 'cases' proof

method anyway;

* Isar/HOL: removed old expand_if = split_if; theorems if_splits =

split_if split_if_asm; datatype package provides theorems foo.splits =

foo.split foo.split_asm for each datatype;

* Isar/HOL: tuned inductive package, rename "intrs" to "intros"

(potential INCOMPATIBILITY), emulation of mk_cases feature for proof

scripts: new 'inductive_cases' command and 'ind_cases' method; (Note:

use "(cases (simplified))" method in proper proof texts);

* Isar/HOL: added global 'arith_split' attribute for 'arith' method;

* Isar: names of theorems etc. may be natural numbers as well;

* Isar: 'pr' command: optional arguments for goals_limit and

ProofContext.prems_limit; no longer prints theory contexts, but only

proof states;

* Isar: diagnostic commands 'pr', 'thm', 'prop', 'term', 'typ' admit

additional print modes to be specified; e.g. "pr(latex)" will print

proof state according to the Isabelle LaTeX style;

* Isar: improved support for emulating tactic scripts, including proof

methods 'rule_tac' etc., 'cut_tac', 'thin_tac', 'subgoal_tac',

'rename_tac', 'rotate_tac', 'tactic', and 'case_tac' / 'induct_tac'

(for HOL datatypes);

* Isar: simplified (more robust) goal selection of proof methods: 1st

goal, all goals, or explicit goal specifier (tactic emulation); thus

'proof method scripts' have to be in depth-first order;

* Isar: tuned 'let' syntax: replaced 'as' keyword by 'and';

* Isar: removed 'help' command, which hasn't been too helpful anyway;

should instead use individual commands for printing items

(print_commands, print_methods etc.);

* Isar: added 'nothing' --- the empty list of theorems;

*** HOL ***

* HOL/MicroJava: formalization of a fragment of Java, together with a

corresponding virtual machine and a specification of its bytecode

verifier and a lightweight bytecode verifier, including proofs of

type-safety; by Gerwin Klein, Tobias Nipkow, David von Oheimb, and

Cornelia Pusch (see also the homepage of project Bali at

http://isabelle.in.tum.de/Bali/);

* HOL/Algebra: new theory of rings and univariate polynomials, by

Clemens Ballarin;

* HOL/NumberTheory: fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, Chinese

Remainder Theorem, Fermat/Euler Theorem, Wilson's Theorem, by Thomas M

Rasmussen;

* HOL/Lattice: fundamental concepts of lattice theory and order

structures, including duals, properties of bounds versus algebraic

laws, lattice operations versus set-theoretic ones, the Knaster-Tarski

Theorem for complete lattices etc.; may also serve as a demonstration

for abstract algebraic reasoning using axiomatic type classes, and

mathematics-style proof in Isabelle/Isar; by Markus Wenzel;

* HOL/Prolog: a (bare-bones) implementation of Lambda-Prolog, by David

von Oheimb;

* HOL/IMPP: extension of IMP with local variables and mutually

recursive procedures, by David von Oheimb;

* HOL/Lambda: converted into new-style theory and document;

* HOL/ex/Multiquote: example of multiple nested quotations and

anti-quotations -- basically a generalized version of de-Bruijn

representation; very useful in avoiding lifting of operations;

* HOL/record: added general record equality rule to simpset; fixed

select-update simplification procedure to handle extended records as

well; admit "r" as field name;

* HOL: 0 is now overloaded over the new sort "zero", allowing its use with

other numeric types and also as the identity of groups, rings, etc.;

* HOL: new axclass plus_ac0 for addition with the AC-laws and 0 as identity.

Types nat and int belong to this axclass;

* HOL: greatly improved simplification involving numerals of type nat, int, real:

(i + #8 + j) = Suc k simplifies to #7 + (i + j) = k

i*j + k + j*#3*i simplifies to #4*(i*j) + k

two terms #m*u and #n*u are replaced by #(m+n)*u

(where #m, #n and u can implicitly be 1; this is simproc combine_numerals)

and the term/formula #m*u+x ~~ #n*u+y simplifies simplifies to #(m-n)+x ~~ y

or x ~~ #(n-m)+y, where ~~ is one of = < <= or - (simproc cancel_numerals);

* HOL: meson_tac is available (previously in ex/meson.ML); it is a

powerful prover for predicate logic but knows nothing of clasets; see

ex/mesontest.ML and ex/mesontest2.ML for example applications;

* HOL: new version of "case_tac" subsumes both boolean case split and

"exhaust_tac" on datatypes; INCOMPATIBILITY: exhaust_tac no longer

exists, may define val exhaust_tac = case_tac for ad-hoc portability;

* HOL: simplification no longer dives into case-expressions: only the

selector expression is simplified, but not the remaining arms; to

enable full simplification of case-expressions for datatype t, you may

remove t.weak_case_cong from the simpset, either globally (Delcongs

[thm"t.weak_case_cong"];) or locally (delcongs [...]).

* HOL/recdef: the recursion equations generated by 'recdef' for

function 'f' are now called f.simps instead of f.rules; if all

termination conditions are proved automatically, these simplification

rules are added to the simpset, as in primrec; rules may be named

individually as well, resulting in a separate list of theorems for

each equation;

* HOL/While is a new theory that provides a while-combinator. It

permits the definition of tail-recursive functions without the

provision of a termination measure. The latter is necessary once the

invariant proof rule for while is applied.

* HOL: new (overloaded) notation for the set of elements below/above

some element: {..u}, {..u(}, {l..}, {)l..}. See theory SetInterval.

* HOL: theorems impI, allI, ballI bound as "strip";

* HOL: new tactic induct_thm_tac: thm -> string -> int -> tactic

induct_tac th "x1 ... xn" expects th to have a conclusion of the form

P v1 ... vn and abbreviates res_inst_tac [("v1","x1"),...,("vn","xn")] th;

* HOL/Real: "rabs" replaced by overloaded "abs" function;

* HOL: theory Sexp now in HOL/Induct examples (it used to be part of

main HOL, but was unused);

* HOL: fewer consts declared as global (e.g. have to refer to

"Lfp.lfp" instead of "lfp" internally; affects ML packages only);

* HOL: tuned AST representation of nested pairs, avoiding bogus output

in case of overlap with user translations (e.g. judgements over

tuples); (note that the underlying logical represenation is still

bogus);

*** ZF ***

* ZF: simplification automatically cancels common terms in arithmetic

expressions over nat and int;

* ZF: new treatment of nat to minimize type-checking: all operators

coerce their operands to a natural number using the function natify,

making the algebraic laws unconditional;

* ZF: as above, for int: operators coerce their operands to an integer

using the function intify;

* ZF: the integer library now contains many of the usual laws for the

orderings, including $<=, and monotonicity laws for $+ and $*;

* ZF: new example ZF/ex/NatSum to demonstrate integer arithmetic

simplification;

* FOL and ZF: AddIffs now available, giving theorems of the form P<->Q

to the simplifier and classical reasoner simultaneously;

*** General ***

* Provers: blast_tac now handles actual object-logic rules as

assumptions; note that auto_tac uses blast_tac internally as well;

* Provers: new functions rulify/rulify_no_asm: thm -> thm for turning

outer -->/All/Ball into ==>/!!; qed_spec_mp now uses rulify_no_asm;

* Provers: delrules now handles destruct rules as well (no longer need

explicit make_elim);

* Provers: Blast_tac now warns of and ignores "weak elimination rules" e.g.

[| inj ?f; ?f ?x = ?f ?y; ?x = ?y ==> ?W |] ==> ?W

use instead the strong form,

[| inj ?f; ~ ?W ==> ?f ?x = ?f ?y; ?x = ?y ==> ?W |] ==> ?W

in HOL, FOL and ZF the function cla_make_elim will create such rules

from destruct-rules;

* Provers: Simplifier.easy_setup provides a fast path to basic

Simplifier setup for new object-logics;

* Pure: AST translation rules no longer require constant head on LHS;

* Pure: improved name spaces: ambiguous output is qualified; support

for hiding of names;

* system: smart setup of canonical ML_HOME, ISABELLE_INTERFACE, and

XSYMBOL_HOME; no longer need to do manual configuration in most

situations;

* system: compression of ML heaps images may now be controlled via -c

option of isabelle and isatool usedir (currently only observed by

Poly/ML);

* system: isatool installfonts may handle X-Symbol fonts as well (very

useful for remote X11);

* system: provide TAGS file for Isabelle sources;

* ML: infix 'OF' is a version of 'MRS' with more appropriate argument

order;

* ML: renamed flags Syntax.trace_norm_ast to Syntax.trace_ast; global

timing flag supersedes proof_timing and Toplevel.trace;

* ML: new combinators |>> and |>>> for incremental transformations

with secondary results (e.g. certain theory extensions):

* ML: PureThy.add_defs gets additional argument to indicate potential

overloading (usually false);

* ML: PureThy.add_thms/add_axioms/add_defs now return theorems as

results;

New in Isabelle99 (October 1999)

--------------------------------

*** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***

* HOL: The THEN and ELSE parts of conditional expressions (if P then x else y)

are no longer simplified. (This allows the simplifier to unfold recursive

functional programs.) To restore the old behaviour, declare

Delcongs [if_weak_cong];

* HOL: Removed the obsolete syntax "Compl A"; use -A for set

complement;

* HOL: the predicate "inj" is now defined by translation to "inj_on";

* HOL/datatype: mutual_induct_tac no longer exists --

use induct_tac "x_1 ... x_n" instead of mutual_induct_tac ["x_1", ..., "x_n"]

* HOL/typedef: fixed type inference for representing set; type

arguments now have to occur explicitly on the rhs as type constraints;

* ZF: The con_defs part of an inductive definition may no longer refer

to constants declared in the same theory;

* HOL, ZF: the function mk_cases, generated by the inductive

definition package, has lost an argument. To simplify its result, it

uses the default simpset instead of a supplied list of theorems.

* HOL/List: the constructors of type list are now Nil and Cons;

* Simplifier: the type of the infix ML functions

setSSolver addSSolver setSolver addSolver

is now simpset * solver -> simpset where `solver' is a new abstract type

for packaging solvers. A solver is created via

mk_solver: string -> (thm list -> int -> tactic) -> solver

where the string argument is only a comment.

*** Proof tools ***

* Provers/Arith/fast_lin_arith.ML contains a functor for creating a

decision procedure for linear arithmetic. Currently it is used for

types `nat', `int', and `real' in HOL (see below); it can, should and

will be instantiated for other types and logics as well.

* The simplifier now accepts rewrite rules with flexible heads, eg

hom ?f ==> ?f(?x+?y) = ?f ?x + ?f ?y

They are applied like any rule with a non-pattern lhs, i.e. by first-order

matching.

*** General ***

* New Isabelle/Isar subsystem provides an alternative to traditional

tactical theorem proving; together with the ProofGeneral/isar user

interface it offers an interactive environment for developing human

readable proof documents (Isar == Intelligible semi-automated

reasoning); for further information see isatool doc isar-ref,

src/HOL/Isar_examples and http://isabelle.in.tum.de/Isar/

* improved and simplified presentation of theories: better HTML markup

(including colors), graph views in several sizes; isatool usedir now

provides a proper interface for user theories (via -P option); actual

document preparation based on (PDF)LaTeX is available as well (for

new-style theories only); see isatool doc system for more information;

* native support for Proof General, both for classic Isabelle and

Isabelle/Isar;

* ML function thm_deps visualizes dependencies of theorems and lemmas,

using the graph browser tool;

* Isabelle manuals now also available as PDF;

* theory loader rewritten from scratch (may not be fully

bug-compatible); old loadpath variable has been replaced by show_path,

add_path, del_path, reset_path functions; new operations such as

update_thy, touch_thy, remove_thy, use/update_thy_only (see also

isatool doc ref);

* improved isatool install: option -k creates KDE application icon,

option -p DIR installs standalone binaries;

* added ML_PLATFORM setting (useful for cross-platform installations);

more robust handling of platform specific ML images for SML/NJ;

* the settings environment is now statically scoped, i.e. it is never

created again in sub-processes invoked from isabelle, isatool, or

Isabelle;

* path element specification '~~' refers to '$ISABELLE_HOME';

* in locales, the "assumes" and "defines" parts may be omitted if

empty;

* new print_mode "xsymbols" for extended symbol support (e.g. genuine

long arrows);

* new print_mode "HTML";

* new flag show_tags controls display of tags of theorems (which are

basically just comments that may be attached by some tools);

* Isamode 2.6 requires patch to accomodate change of Isabelle font

mode and goal output format:

diff -r Isamode-2.6/elisp/isa-load.el Isamode/elisp/isa-load.el

244c244

< (list (isa-getenv "ISABELLE") "-msymbols" logic-name)

---

> (list (isa-getenv "ISABELLE") "-misabelle_font" "-msymbols" logic-name)

diff -r Isabelle-2.6/elisp/isa-proofstate.el Isamode/elisp/isa-proofstate.el

181c181

< (defconst proofstate-proofstart-regexp "^Level [0-9]+$"

---

> (defconst proofstate-proofstart-regexp "^Level [0-9]+"

* function bind_thms stores lists of theorems (cf. bind_thm);

* new shorthand tactics ftac, eatac, datac, fatac;

* qed (and friends) now accept "" as result name; in that case the

theorem is not stored, but proper checks and presentation of the

result still apply;

* theorem database now also indexes constants "Trueprop", "all",

"==>", "=="; thus thms_containing, findI etc. may retrieve more rules;

*** HOL ***

** HOL arithmetic **

* There are now decision procedures for linear arithmetic over nat and

int:

1. arith_tac copes with arbitrary formulae involving `=', `<', `<=',

`+', `-', `Suc', `min', `max' and numerical constants; other subterms

are treated as atomic; subformulae not involving type `nat' or `int'

are ignored; quantified subformulae are ignored unless they are

positive universal or negative existential. The tactic has to be

invoked by hand and can be a little bit slow. In particular, the

running time is exponential in the number of occurrences of `min' and

`max', and `-' on `nat'.

2. fast_arith_tac is a cut-down version of arith_tac: it only takes

(negated) (in)equalities among the premises and the conclusion into

account (i.e. no compound formulae) and does not know about `min' and

`max', and `-' on `nat'. It is fast and is used automatically by the

simplifier.

NB: At the moment, these decision procedures do not cope with mixed

nat/int formulae where the two parts interact, such as `m < n ==>

int(m) < int(n)'.

* HOL/Numeral provides a generic theory of numerals (encoded

efficiently as bit strings); setup for types nat/int/real is in place;

INCOMPATIBILITY: since numeral syntax is now polymorphic, rather than

int, existing theories and proof scripts may require a few additional

type constraints;

* integer division and remainder can now be performed on constant

arguments;

* many properties of integer multiplication, division and remainder

are now available;

* An interface to the Stanford Validity Checker (SVC) is available through the

tactic svc_tac. Propositional tautologies and theorems of linear arithmetic

are proved automatically. SVC must be installed separately, and its results

must be TAKEN ON TRUST (Isabelle does not check the proofs, but tags any

invocation of the underlying oracle). For SVC see

http://verify.stanford.edu/SVC

* IsaMakefile: the HOL-Real target now builds an actual image;

** HOL misc **

* HOL/Real/HahnBanach: the Hahn-Banach theorem for real vector spaces

(in Isabelle/Isar) -- by Gertrud Bauer;

* HOL/BCV: generic model of bytecode verification, i.e. data-flow

analysis for assembly languages with subtypes;

* HOL/TLA (Lamport's Temporal Logic of Actions): major reorganization

-- avoids syntactic ambiguities and treats state, transition, and

temporal levels more uniformly; introduces INCOMPATIBILITIES due to

changed syntax and (many) tactics;

* HOL/inductive: Now also handles more general introduction rules such

as "ALL y. (y, x) : r --> y : acc r ==> x : acc r"; monotonicity

theorems are now maintained within the theory (maintained via the

"mono" attribute);

* HOL/datatype: Now also handles arbitrarily branching datatypes

(using function types) such as

datatype 'a tree = Atom 'a | Branch "nat => 'a tree"

* HOL/record: record_simproc (part of the default simpset) takes care

of selectors applied to updated records; record_split_tac is no longer

part of the default claset; update_defs may now be removed from the

simpset in many cases; COMPATIBILITY: old behavior achieved by

claset_ref () := claset() addSWrapper record_split_wrapper;

Delsimprocs [record_simproc]

* HOL/typedef: fixed type inference for representing set; type

arguments now have to occur explicitly on the rhs as type constraints;

* HOL/recdef (TFL): 'congs' syntax now expects comma separated list of theorem

names rather than an ML expression;

* HOL/defer_recdef (TFL): like recdef but the well-founded relation can be

supplied later. Program schemes can be defined, such as

"While B C s = (if B s then While B C (C s) else s)"

where the well-founded relation can be chosen after B and C have been given.

* HOL/List: the constructors of type list are now Nil and Cons;

INCOMPATIBILITY: while [] and infix # syntax is still there, of

course, ML tools referring to List.list.op # etc. have to be adapted;

* HOL_quantifiers flag superseded by "HOL" print mode, which is

disabled by default; run isabelle with option -m HOL to get back to

the original Gordon/HOL-style output;

* HOL/Ord.thy: new bounded quantifier syntax (input only): ALL x<y. P,

ALL x<=y. P, EX x<y. P, EX x<=y. P;

* HOL basic syntax simplified (more orthogonal): all variants of

All/Ex now support plain / symbolic / HOL notation; plain syntax for

Eps operator is provided as well: "SOME x. P[x]";

* HOL/Sum.thy: sum_case has been moved to HOL/Datatype;

* HOL/Univ.thy: infix syntax <*>, <+>, <**>, <+> eliminated and made

thus available for user theories;

* HOLCF/IOA/Sequents: renamed 'Cons' to 'Consq' to avoid clash with

HOL/List; hardly an INCOMPATIBILITY since '>>' syntax is used all the

time;

* HOL: new tactic smp_tac: int -> int -> tactic, which applies spec

several times and then mp;

*** LK ***

* the notation <<...>> is now available as a notation for sequences of

formulas;

* the simplifier is now installed

* the axiom system has been generalized (thanks to Soren Heilmann)

* the classical reasoner now has a default rule database

*** ZF ***

* new primrec section allows primitive recursive functions to be given

directly (as in HOL) over datatypes and the natural numbers;

* new tactics induct_tac and exhaust_tac for induction (or case

analysis) over datatypes and the natural numbers;

* the datatype declaration of type T now defines the recursor T_rec;

* simplification automatically does freeness reasoning for datatype

constructors;

* automatic type-inference, with AddTCs command to insert new

type-checking rules;

* datatype introduction rules are now added as Safe Introduction rules

to the claset;

* the syntax "if P then x else y" is now available in addition to

if(P,x,y);

*** Internal programming interfaces ***

* tuned simplifier trace output; new flag debug_simp;

* structures Vartab / Termtab (instances of TableFun) offer efficient

tables indexed by indexname_ord / term_ord (compatible with aconv);

* AxClass.axclass_tac lost the theory argument;

* tuned current_goals_markers semantics: begin / end goal avoids

printing empty lines;

* removed prs and prs_fn hook, which was broken because it did not

include \n in its semantics, forcing writeln to add one

uncoditionally; replaced prs_fn by writeln_fn; consider std_output:

string -> unit if you really want to output text without newline;

* Symbol.output subject to print mode; INCOMPATIBILITY: defaults to

plain output, interface builders may have to enable 'isabelle_font'

mode to get Isabelle font glyphs as before;

* refined token_translation interface; INCOMPATIBILITY: output length

now of type real instead of int;

* theory loader actions may be traced via new ThyInfo.add_hook

interface (see src/Pure/Thy/thy_info.ML); example application: keep

your own database of information attached to *whole* theories -- as

opposed to intra-theory data slots offered via TheoryDataFun;

* proper handling of dangling sort hypotheses (at last!);

Thm.strip_shyps and Drule.strip_shyps_warning take care of removing

extra sort hypotheses that can be witnessed from the type signature;

the force_strip_shyps flag is gone, any remaining shyps are simply

left in the theorem (with a warning issued by strip_shyps_warning);

New in Isabelle98-1 (October 1998)

----------------------------------

*** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***

* several changes of automated proof tools;

* HOL: major changes to the inductive and datatype packages, including

some minor incompatibilities of theory syntax;

* HOL: renamed r^-1 to 'converse' from 'inverse'; 'inj_onto' is now

called `inj_on';

* HOL: removed duplicate thms in Arith:

less_imp_add_less should be replaced by trans_less_add1

le_imp_add_le should be replaced by trans_le_add1

* HOL: unary minus is now overloaded (new type constraints may be

required);

* HOL and ZF: unary minus for integers is now #- instead of #~. In

ZF, expressions such as n#-1 must be changed to n#- 1, since #-1 is

now taken as an integer constant.

* Pure: ML function 'theory_of' renamed to 'theory';

*** Proof tools ***

* Simplifier:

1. Asm_full_simp_tac is now more aggressive.

1. It will sometimes reorient premises if that increases their power to

simplify.

2. It does no longer proceed strictly from left to right but may also

rotate premises to achieve further simplification.

For compatibility reasons there is now Asm_lr_simp_tac which is like the

old Asm_full_simp_tac in that it does not rotate premises.

2. The simplifier now knows a little bit about nat-arithmetic.

* Classical reasoner: wrapper mechanism for the classical reasoner now

allows for selected deletion of wrappers, by introduction of names for

wrapper functionals. This implies that addbefore, addSbefore,

addaltern, and addSaltern now take a pair (name, tactic) as argument,

and that adding two tactics with the same name overwrites the first

one (emitting a warning).

type wrapper = (int -> tactic) -> (int -> tactic)

setWrapper, setSWrapper, compWrapper and compSWrapper are replaced by

addWrapper, addSWrapper: claset * (string * wrapper) -> claset

delWrapper, delSWrapper: claset * string -> claset

getWrapper is renamed to appWrappers, getSWrapper to appSWrappers;

* Classical reasoner: addbefore/addSbefore now have APPEND/ORELSE

semantics; addbefore now affects only the unsafe part of step_tac

etc.; this affects addss/auto_tac/force_tac, so EXISTING PROOFS MAY

FAIL, but proofs should be fixable easily, e.g. by replacing Auto_tac

by Force_tac;

* Classical reasoner: setwrapper to setWrapper and compwrapper to

compWrapper; added safe wrapper (and access functions for it);

* HOL/split_all_tac is now much faster and fails if there is nothing

to split. Some EXISTING PROOFS MAY REQUIRE ADAPTION because the order

and the names of the automatically generated variables have changed.

split_all_tac has moved within claset() from unsafe wrappers to safe

wrappers, which means that !!-bound variables are split much more

aggressively, and safe_tac and clarify_tac now split such variables.

If this splitting is not appropriate, use delSWrapper "split_all_tac".

Note: the same holds for record_split_tac, which does the job of

split_all_tac for record fields.

* HOL/Simplifier: Rewrite rules for case distinctions can now be added

permanently to the default simpset using Addsplits just like

Addsimps. They can be removed via Delsplits just like

Delsimps. Lower-case versions are also available.

* HOL/Simplifier: The rule split_if is now part of the default

simpset. This means that the simplifier will eliminate all occurrences

of if-then-else in the conclusion of a goal. To prevent this, you can

either remove split_if completely from the default simpset by

`Delsplits [split_if]' or remove it in a specific call of the

simplifier using `... delsplits [split_if]'. You can also add/delete

other case splitting rules to/from the default simpset: every datatype

generates suitable rules `split_t_case' and `split_t_case_asm' (where

t is the name of the datatype).

* Classical reasoner / Simplifier combination: new force_tac (and

derivatives Force_tac, force) combines rewriting and classical

reasoning (and whatever other tools) similarly to auto_tac, but is

aimed to solve the given subgoal completely.

*** General ***

* new top-level commands `Goal' and `Goalw' that improve upon `goal'

and `goalw': the theory is no longer needed as an explicit argument -

the current theory context is used; assumptions are no longer returned

at the ML-level unless one of them starts with ==> or !!; it is

recommended to convert to these new commands using isatool fixgoal

(backup your sources first!);

* new top-level commands 'thm' and 'thms' for retrieving theorems from

the current theory context, and 'theory' to lookup stored theories;

* new theory section 'locale' for declaring constants, assumptions and

definitions that have local scope;

* new theory section 'nonterminals' for purely syntactic types;

* new theory section 'setup' for generic ML setup functions

(e.g. package initialization);

* the distribution now includes Isabelle icons: see

lib/logo/isabelle-{small,tiny}.xpm;

* isatool install - install binaries with absolute references to

ISABELLE_HOME/bin;

* isatool logo -- create instances of the Isabelle logo (as EPS);

* print mode 'emacs' reserved for Isamode;

* support multiple print (ast) translations per constant name;

* theorems involving oracles are now printed with a suffixed [!];

*** HOL ***

* there is now a tutorial on Isabelle/HOL (do 'isatool doc tutorial');

* HOL/inductive package reorganized and improved: now supports mutual

definitions such as

inductive EVEN ODD

intrs

null "0 : EVEN"

oddI "n : EVEN ==> Suc n : ODD"

evenI "n : ODD ==> Suc n : EVEN"

new theorem list "elims" contains an elimination rule for each of the

recursive sets; inductive definitions now handle disjunctive premises

correctly (also ZF);

INCOMPATIBILITIES: requires Inductive as an ancestor; component

"mutual_induct" no longer exists - the induction rule is always

contained in "induct";

* HOL/datatype package re-implemented and greatly improved: now

supports mutually recursive datatypes such as

datatype

'a aexp = IF_THEN_ELSE ('a bexp) ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

| SUM ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

| DIFF ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

| NUM 'a

and

'a bexp = LESS ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

| AND ('a bexp) ('a bexp)

| OR ('a bexp) ('a bexp)

as well as indirectly recursive datatypes such as

datatype

('a, 'b) term = Var 'a

| App 'b ((('a, 'b) term) list)

The new tactic mutual_induct_tac [<var_1>, ..., <var_n>] i performs

induction on mutually / indirectly recursive datatypes.

Primrec equations are now stored in theory and can be accessed via

<function_name>.simps.

INCOMPATIBILITIES:

- Theories using datatypes must now have theory Datatype as an

ancestor.

- The specific <typename>.induct_tac no longer exists - use the

generic induct_tac instead.

- natE has been renamed to nat.exhaust - use exhaust_tac

instead of res_inst_tac ... natE. Note that the variable

names in nat.exhaust differ from the names in natE, this

may cause some "fragile" proofs to fail.

- The theorems split_<typename>_case and split_<typename>_case_asm

have been renamed to <typename>.split and <typename>.split_asm.

- Since default sorts of type variables are now handled correctly,

some datatype definitions may have to be annotated with explicit

sort constraints.

- Primrec definitions no longer require function name and type

of recursive argument.

Consider using isatool fixdatatype to adapt your theories and proof

scripts to the new package (backup your sources first!).

* HOL/record package: considerably improved implementation; now

includes concrete syntax for record types, terms, updates; theorems

for surjective pairing and splitting !!-bound record variables; proof

support is as follows:

1) standard conversions (selectors or updates applied to record

constructor terms) are part of the standard simpset;

2) inject equations of the form ((x, y) = (x', y')) == x=x' & y=y' are

made part of standard simpset and claset via addIffs;

3) a tactic for record field splitting (record_split_tac) is part of

the standard claset (addSWrapper);

To get a better idea about these rules you may retrieve them via

something like 'thms "foo.simps"' or 'thms "foo.iffs"', where "foo" is

the name of your record type.

The split tactic 3) conceptually simplifies by the following rule:

"(!!x. PROP ?P x) == (!!a b. PROP ?P (a, b))"

Thus any record variable that is bound by meta-all will automatically

blow up into some record constructor term, consequently the

simplifications of 1), 2) apply. Thus force_tac, auto_tac etc. shall

solve record problems automatically.

* reorganized the main HOL image: HOL/Integ and String loaded by

default; theory Main includes everything;

* automatic simplification of integer sums and comparisons, using cancellation;

* added option_map_eq_Some and not_Some_eq to the default simpset and claset;

* added disj_not1 = "(~P | Q) = (P --> Q)" to the default simpset;

* many new identities for unions, intersections, set difference, etc.;

* expand_if, expand_split, expand_sum_case and expand_nat_case are now

called split_if, split_split, split_sum_case and split_nat_case (to go

with add/delsplits);

* HOL/Prod introduces simplification procedure unit_eq_proc rewriting

(?x::unit) = (); this is made part of the default simpset, which COULD

MAKE EXISTING PROOFS FAIL under rare circumstances (consider

'Delsimprocs [unit_eq_proc];' as last resort); also note that

unit_abs_eta_conv is added in order to counter the effect of

unit_eq_proc on (%u::unit. f u), replacing it by f rather than by

%u.f();

* HOL/Fun INCOMPATIBILITY: `inj_onto' is now called `inj_on' (which

makes more sense);

* HOL/Set INCOMPATIBILITY: rule `equals0D' is now a well-formed destruct rule;

It and 'sym RS equals0D' are now in the default claset, giving automatic

disjointness reasoning but breaking a few old proofs.

* HOL/Relation INCOMPATIBILITY: renamed the relational operator r^-1

to 'converse' from 'inverse' (for compatibility with ZF and some

literature);

* HOL/recdef can now declare non-recursive functions, with {} supplied as

the well-founded relation;

* HOL/Set INCOMPATIBILITY: the complement of set A is now written -A instead of

Compl A. The "Compl" syntax remains available as input syntax for this

release ONLY.

* HOL/Update: new theory of function updates:

f(a:=b) == %x. if x=a then b else f x

may also be iterated as in f(a:=b,c:=d,...);

* HOL/Vimage: new theory for inverse image of a function, syntax f-``B;

* HOL/List:

- new function list_update written xs[i:=v] that updates the i-th

list position. May also be iterated as in xs[i:=a,j:=b,...].

- new function `upt' written [i..j(] which generates the list

[i,i+1,...,j-1], i.e. the upper bound is excluded. To include the upper

bound write [i..j], which is a shorthand for [i..j+1(].

- new lexicographic orderings and corresponding wellfoundedness theorems.

* HOL/Arith:

- removed 'pred' (predecessor) function;

- generalized some theorems about n-1;

- many new laws about "div" and "mod";

- new laws about greatest common divisors (see theory ex/Primes);

* HOL/Relation: renamed the relational operator r^-1 "converse"

instead of "inverse";

* HOL/Induct/Multiset: a theory of multisets, including the wellfoundedness

of the multiset ordering;

* directory HOL/Real: a construction of the reals using Dedekind cuts

(not included by default);

* directory HOL/UNITY: Chandy and Misra's UNITY formalism;

* directory HOL/Hoare: a new version of Hoare logic which permits many-sorted

programs, i.e. different program variables may have different types.

* calling (stac rew i) now fails if "rew" has no effect on the goal

[previously, this check worked only if the rewrite rule was unconditional]

Now rew can involve either definitions or equalities (either == or =).

*** ZF ***

* theory Main includes everything; INCOMPATIBILITY: theory ZF.thy contains

only the theorems proved on ZF.ML;

* ZF INCOMPATIBILITY: rule `equals0D' is now a well-formed destruct rule;

It and 'sym RS equals0D' are now in the default claset, giving automatic

disjointness reasoning but breaking a few old proofs.

* ZF/Update: new theory of function updates

with default rewrite rule f(x:=y) ` z = if(z=x, y, f`z)

may also be iterated as in f(a:=b,c:=d,...);

* in let x=t in u(x), neither t nor u(x) has to be an FOL term.

* calling (stac rew i) now fails if "rew" has no effect on the goal

[previously, this check worked only if the rewrite rule was unconditional]

Now rew can involve either definitions or equalities (either == or =).

* case_tac provided for compatibility with HOL

(like the old excluded_middle_tac, but with subgoals swapped)

*** Internal programming interfaces ***

* Pure: several new basic modules made available for general use, see

also src/Pure/README;

* improved the theory data mechanism to support encapsulation (data

kind name replaced by private Object.kind, acting as authorization

key); new type-safe user interface via functor TheoryDataFun; generic

print_data function becomes basically useless;

* removed global_names compatibility flag -- all theory declarations

are qualified by default;

* module Pure/Syntax now offers quote / antiquote translation

functions (useful for Hoare logic etc. with implicit dependencies);

see HOL/ex/Antiquote for an example use;

* Simplifier now offers conversions (asm_)(full_)rewrite: simpset ->

cterm -> thm;

* new tactical CHANGED_GOAL for checking that a tactic modifies a

subgoal;

* Display.print_goals function moved to Locale.print_goals;

* standard print function for goals supports current_goals_markers

variable for marking begin of proof, end of proof, start of goal; the

default is ("", "", ""); setting current_goals_markers := ("<proof>",

"</proof>", "<goal>") causes SGML like tagged proof state printing,

for example;

New in Isabelle98 (January 1998)

--------------------------------

*** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***

* changed lexical syntax of terms / types: dots made part of long

identifiers, e.g. "%x.x" no longer possible, should be "%x. x";

* simpset (and claset) reference variable replaced by functions

simpset / simpset_ref;

* no longer supports theory aliases (via merge) and non-trivial

implicit merge of thms' signatures;

* most internal names of constants changed due to qualified names;

* changed Pure/Sequence interface (see Pure/seq.ML);

*** General Changes ***

* hierachically structured name spaces (for consts, types, axms, thms

etc.); new lexical class 'longid' (e.g. Foo.bar.x) may render much of

old input syntactically incorrect (e.g. "%x.x"); COMPATIBILITY:

isatool fixdots ensures space after dots (e.g. "%x. x"); set

long_names for fully qualified output names; NOTE: ML programs

(special tactics, packages etc.) referring to internal names may have

to be adapted to cope with fully qualified names; in case of severe

backward campatibility problems try setting 'global_names' at compile

time to have enrything declared within a flat name space; one may also

fine tune name declarations in theories via the 'global' and 'local'

section;

* reimplemented the implicit simpset and claset using the new anytype

data filed in signatures; references simpset:simpset ref etc. are

replaced by functions simpset:unit->simpset and

simpset_ref:unit->simpset ref; COMPATIBILITY: use isatool fixclasimp

to patch your ML files accordingly;

* HTML output now includes theory graph data for display with Java

applet or isatool browser; data generated automatically via isatool

usedir (see -i option, ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS);

* defs may now be conditional; improved rewrite_goals_tac to handle

conditional equations;

* defs now admits additional type arguments, using TYPE('a) syntax;

* theory aliases via merge (e.g. M=A+B+C) no longer supported, always

creates a new theory node; implicit merge of thms' signatures is

restricted to 'trivial' ones; COMPATIBILITY: one may have to use

transfer:theory->thm->thm in (rare) cases;

* improved handling of draft signatures / theories; draft thms (and

ctyps, cterms) are automatically promoted to real ones;

* slightly changed interfaces for oracles: admit many per theory, named

(e.g. oracle foo = mlfun), additional name argument for invoke_oracle;

* print_goals: optional output of const types (set show_consts and

show_types);

* improved output of warnings (###) and errors (***);

* subgoal_tac displays a warning if the new subgoal has type variables;

* removed old README and Makefiles;

* replaced print_goals_ref hook by print_current_goals_fn and result_error_fn;

* removed obsolete init_pps and init_database;

* deleted the obsolete tactical STATE, which was declared by

fun STATE tacfun st = tacfun st st;

* cd and use now support path variables, e.g. $ISABELLE_HOME, or ~

(which abbreviates $HOME);

* changed Pure/Sequence interface (see Pure/seq.ML); COMPATIBILITY:

use isatool fixseq to adapt your ML programs (this works for fully

qualified references to the Sequence structure only!);

* use_thy no longer requires writable current directory; it always

reloads .ML *and* .thy file, if either one is out of date;

*** Classical Reasoner ***

* Clarify_tac, clarify_tac, clarify_step_tac, Clarify_step_tac: new

tactics that use classical reasoning to simplify a subgoal without

splitting it into several subgoals;

* Safe_tac: like safe_tac but uses the default claset;

*** Simplifier ***

* added simplification meta rules:

(asm_)(full_)simplify: simpset -> thm -> thm;

* simplifier.ML no longer part of Pure -- has to be loaded by object

logics (again);

* added prems argument to simplification procedures;

* HOL, FOL, ZF: added infix function `addsplits':

instead of `<simpset> setloop (split_tac <thms>)'

you can simply write `<simpset> addsplits <thms>'

*** Syntax ***

* TYPE('a) syntax for type reflection terms;

* no longer handles consts with name "" -- declare as 'syntax' instead;

* pretty printer: changed order of mixfix annotation preference (again!);

* Pure: fixed idt/idts vs. pttrn/pttrns syntactic categories;

*** HOL ***

* HOL: there is a new splitter `split_asm_tac' that can be used e.g.

with `addloop' of the simplifier to faciliate case splitting in premises.

* HOL/TLA: Stephan Merz's formalization of Lamport's Temporal Logic of Actions;

* HOL/Auth: new protocol proofs including some for the Internet

protocol TLS;

* HOL/Map: new theory of `maps' a la VDM;

* HOL/simplifier: simplification procedures nat_cancel_sums for

cancelling out common nat summands from =, <, <= (in)equalities, or

differences; simplification procedures nat_cancel_factor for

cancelling common factor from =, <, <= (in)equalities over natural

sums; nat_cancel contains both kinds of procedures, it is installed by

default in Arith.thy -- this COULD MAKE EXISTING PROOFS FAIL;

* HOL/simplifier: terms of the form

`? x. P1(x) & ... & Pn(x) & x=t & Q1(x) & ... Qn(x)' (or t=x)

are rewritten to

`P1(t) & ... & Pn(t) & Q1(t) & ... Qn(t)',

and those of the form

`! x. P1(x) & ... & Pn(x) & x=t & Q1(x) & ... Qn(x) --> R(x)' (or t=x)

are rewritten to

`P1(t) & ... & Pn(t) & Q1(t) & ... Qn(t) --> R(t)',

* HOL/datatype

Each datatype `t' now comes with a theorem `split_t_case' of the form

P(t_case f1 ... fn x) =

( (!y1 ... ym1. x = C1 y1 ... ym1 --> P(f1 y1 ... ym1)) &

...

(!y1 ... ymn. x = Cn y1 ... ymn --> P(f1 y1 ... ymn))

)

and a theorem `split_t_case_asm' of the form

P(t_case f1 ... fn x) =

~( (? y1 ... ym1. x = C1 y1 ... ym1 & ~P(f1 y1 ... ym1)) |

...

(? y1 ... ymn. x = Cn y1 ... ymn & ~P(f1 y1 ... ymn))

)

which can be added to a simpset via `addsplits'. The existing theorems

expand_list_case and expand_option_case have been renamed to

split_list_case and split_option_case.

* HOL/Arithmetic:

- `pred n' is automatically converted to `n-1'.

Users are strongly encouraged not to use `pred' any longer,

because it will disappear altogether at some point.

- Users are strongly encouraged to write "0 < n" rather than

"n ~= 0". Theorems and proof tools have been modified towards this

`standard'.

* HOL/Lists:

the function "set_of_list" has been renamed "set" (and its theorems too);

the function "nth" now takes its arguments in the reverse order and

has acquired the infix notation "!" as in "xs!n".

* HOL/Set: UNIV is now a constant and is no longer translated to Compl{};

* HOL/Set: The operator (UN x.B x) now abbreviates (UN x:UNIV. B x) and its

specialist theorems (like UN1_I) are gone. Similarly for (INT x.B x);

* HOL/record: extensible records with schematic structural subtyping

(single inheritance); EXPERIMENTAL version demonstrating the encoding,

still lacks various theorems and concrete record syntax;

*** HOLCF ***

* removed "axioms" and "generated by" sections;

* replaced "ops" section by extended "consts" section, which is capable of

handling the continuous function space "->" directly;

* domain package:

. proves theorems immediately and stores them in the theory,

. creates hierachical name space,

. now uses normal mixfix annotations (instead of cinfix...),

. minor changes to some names and values (for consistency),

. e.g. cases -> casedist, dists_eq -> dist_eqs, [take_lemma] -> take_lemmas,

. separator between mutual domain defs: changed "," to "and",

. improved handling of sort constraints; now they have to

appear on the left-hand side of the equations only;

* fixed LAM <x,y,zs>.b syntax;

* added extended adm_tac to simplifier in HOLCF -- can now discharge

adm (%x. P (t x)), where P is chainfinite and t continuous;

*** FOL and ZF ***

* FOL: there is a new splitter `split_asm_tac' that can be used e.g.

with `addloop' of the simplifier to faciliate case splitting in premises.

* qed_spec_mp, qed_goal_spec_mp, qed_goalw_spec_mp are available, as

in HOL, they strip ALL and --> from proved theorems;

New in Isabelle94-8 (May 1997)

------------------------------

*** General Changes ***

* new utilities to build / run / maintain Isabelle etc. (in parts

still somewhat experimental); old Makefiles etc. still functional;

* new 'Isabelle System Manual';

* INSTALL text, together with ./configure and ./build scripts;

* reimplemented type inference for greater efficiency, better error

messages and clean internal interface;

* prlim command for dealing with lots of subgoals (an easier way of

setting goals_limit);

*** Syntax ***

* supports alternative (named) syntax tables (parser and pretty

printer); internal interface is provided by add_modesyntax(_i);

* Pure, FOL, ZF, HOL, HOLCF now support symbolic input and output; to

be used in conjunction with the Isabelle symbol font; uses the

"symbols" syntax table;

* added token_translation interface (may translate name tokens in

arbitrary ways, dependent on their type (free, bound, tfree, ...) and

the current print_mode); IMPORTANT: user print translation functions

are responsible for marking newly introduced bounds

(Syntax.mark_boundT);

* token translations for modes "xterm" and "xterm_color" that display

names in bold, underline etc. or colors (which requires a color

version of xterm);

* infixes may now be declared with names independent of their syntax;

* added typed_print_translation (like print_translation, but may

access type of constant);

*** Classical Reasoner ***

Blast_tac: a new tactic! It is often more powerful than fast_tac, but has

some limitations. Blast_tac...

+ ignores addss, addbefore, addafter; this restriction is intrinsic

+ ignores elimination rules that don't have the correct format

(the conclusion MUST be a formula variable)

+ ignores types, which can make HOL proofs fail

+ rules must not require higher-order unification, e.g. apply_type in ZF

[message "Function Var's argument not a bound variable" relates to this]

+ its proof strategy is more general but can actually be slower

* substitution with equality assumptions no longer permutes other

assumptions;

* minor changes in semantics of addafter (now called addaltern); renamed

setwrapper to setWrapper and compwrapper to compWrapper; added safe wrapper

(and access functions for it);

* improved combination of classical reasoner and simplifier:

+ functions for handling clasimpsets

+ improvement of addss: now the simplifier is called _after_ the

safe steps.

+ safe variant of addss called addSss: uses safe simplifications

_during_ the safe steps. It is more complete as it allows multiple

instantiations of unknowns (e.g. with slow_tac).

*** Simplifier ***

* added interface for simplification procedures (functions that

produce *proven* rewrite rules on the fly, depending on current

redex);

* ordering on terms as parameter (used for ordered rewriting);

* new functions delcongs, deleqcongs, and Delcongs. richer rep_ss;

* the solver is now split into a safe and an unsafe part.

This should be invisible for the normal user, except that the

functions setsolver and addsolver have been renamed to setSolver and

addSolver; added safe_asm_full_simp_tac;

*** HOL ***

* a generic induction tactic `induct_tac' which works for all datatypes and

also for type `nat';

* a generic case distinction tactic `exhaust_tac' which works for all

datatypes and also for type `nat';

* each datatype comes with a function `size';

* patterns in case expressions allow tuple patterns as arguments to

constructors, for example `case x of [] => ... | (x,y,z)#ps => ...';

* primrec now also works with type nat;

* recdef: a new declaration form, allows general recursive functions to be

defined in theory files. See HOL/ex/Fib, HOL/ex/Primes, HOL/Subst/Unify.

* the constant for negation has been renamed from "not" to "Not" to

harmonize with FOL, ZF, LK, etc.;

* HOL/ex/LFilter theory of a corecursive "filter" functional for

infinite lists;

* HOL/Modelcheck demonstrates invocation of model checker oracle;

* HOL/ex/Ring.thy declares cring_simp, which solves equational

problems in commutative rings, using axiomatic type classes for + and *;

* more examples in HOL/MiniML and HOL/Auth;

* more default rewrite rules for quantifiers, union/intersection;

* a new constant `arbitrary == @x.False';

* HOLCF/IOA replaces old HOL/IOA;

* HOLCF changes: derived all rules and arities

+ axiomatic type classes instead of classes

+ typedef instead of faking type definitions

+ eliminated the internal constants less_fun, less_cfun, UU_fun, UU_cfun etc.

+ new axclasses cpo, chfin, flat with flat < chfin < pcpo < cpo < po

+ eliminated the types void, one, tr

+ use unit lift and bool lift (with translations) instead of one and tr

+ eliminated blift from Lift3.thy (use Def instead of blift)

all eliminated rules are derived as theorems --> no visible changes ;

*** ZF ***

* ZF now has Fast_tac, Simp_tac and Auto_tac. Union_iff is a now a default

rewrite rule; this may affect some proofs. eq_cs is gone but can be put back

as ZF_cs addSIs [equalityI];

New in Isabelle94-7 (November 96)

---------------------------------

* allowing negative levels (as offsets) in prlev and choplev;

* super-linear speedup for large simplifications;

* FOL, ZF and HOL now use miniscoping: rewriting pushes

quantifications in as far as possible (COULD MAKE EXISTING PROOFS

FAIL); can suppress it using the command Delsimps (ex_simps @

all_simps); De Morgan laws are also now included, by default;

* improved printing of ==> : ~:

* new object-logic "Sequents" adds linear logic, while replacing LK

and Modal (thanks to Sara Kalvala);

* HOL/Auth: correctness proofs for authentication protocols;

* HOL: new auto_tac combines rewriting and classical reasoning (many

examples on HOL/Auth);

* HOL: new command AddIffs for declaring theorems of the form P=Q to

the rewriter and classical reasoner simultaneously;

* function uresult no longer returns theorems in "standard" format;

regain previous version by: val uresult = standard o uresult;

New in Isabelle94-6

-------------------

* oracles -- these establish an interface between Isabelle and trusted

external reasoners, which may deliver results as theorems;

* proof objects (in particular record all uses of oracles);

* Simp_tac, Fast_tac, etc. that refer to implicit simpset / claset;

* "constdefs" section in theory files;

* "primrec" section (HOL) no longer requires names;

* internal type "tactic" now simply "thm -> thm Sequence.seq";

New in Isabelle94-5

-------------------

* reduced space requirements;

* automatic HTML generation from theories;

* theory files no longer require "..." (quotes) around most types;

* new examples, including two proofs of the Church-Rosser theorem;

* non-curried (1994) version of HOL is no longer distributed;

New in Isabelle94-4

-------------------

* greatly reduced space requirements;

* theory files (.thy) no longer require \...\ escapes at line breaks;

* searchable theorem database (see the section "Retrieving theorems" on

page 8 of the Reference Manual);

* new examples, including Grabczewski's monumental case study of the

Axiom of Choice;

* The previous version of HOL renamed to Old_HOL;

* The new version of HOL (previously called CHOL) uses a curried syntax

for functions. Application looks like f a b instead of f(a,b);

* Mutually recursive inductive definitions finally work in HOL;

* In ZF, pattern-matching on tuples is now available in all abstractions and

translates to the operator "split";

New in Isabelle94-3

-------------------

* new infix operator, addss, allowing the classical reasoner to

perform simplification at each step of its search. Example:

fast_tac (cs addss ss)

* a new logic, CHOL, the same as HOL, but with a curried syntax

for functions. Application looks like f a b instead of f(a,b). Also pairs

look like (a,b) instead of <a,b>;

* PLEASE NOTE: CHOL will eventually replace HOL!

* In CHOL, pattern-matching on tuples is now available in all abstractions.

It translates to the operator "split". A new theory of integers is available;

* In ZF, integer numerals now denote two's-complement binary integers.

Arithmetic operations can be performed by rewriting. See ZF/ex/Bin.ML;

* Many new examples: I/O automata, Church-Rosser theorem, equivalents

of the Axiom of Choice;

New in Isabelle94-2

-------------------

* Significantly faster resolution;

* the different sections in a .thy file can now be mixed and repeated

freely;

* Database of theorems for FOL, HOL and ZF. New

commands including qed, qed_goal and bind_thm store theorems in the database.

* Simple database queries: return a named theorem (get_thm) or all theorems of

a given theory (thms_of), or find out what theory a theorem was proved in

(theory_of_thm);

* Bugs fixed in the inductive definition and datatype packages;

* The classical reasoner provides deepen_tac and depth_tac, making FOL_dup_cs

and HOL_dup_cs obsolete;

* Syntactic ambiguities caused by the new treatment of syntax in Isabelle94-1

have been removed;

* Simpler definition of function space in ZF;

* new results about cardinal and ordinal arithmetic in ZF;

* 'subtype' facility in HOL for introducing new types as subsets of existing

types;

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